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Text 8 plastic surgery

  1. Plastic surgery is surgical specialty concerned with the collection and improvement of physical appearance. It is largely concerned with the bodily surface and with reconstructive work of the face and exposed parts. Although surgical reconstruction of the nose was performed by Hindu physicians before the time of Christ, modern techniques of plastic surgery were originated in the post-World War I years by surgeons repairing the wounds and disfigurements of combat veterans.

  2. The term "plastic" refers to the molding and reshaping of body tissues - bone, fat-muscle, cartilage, and skin. Tissue may be moved to fill a depression, to cover a wound, or to improve appearance. The transfer of skin tissue is one of the most common procedures performed in plastic surgery. Sheets of epithelial cells cultured in vitro and synthetic compounds such as silicone are also used as a substitute for absent or deficient natural tissue.

  3. Plastic surgery is sometimes considered, incorrectly, to be synonymous with aesthetic, or cosmetic, surgery - that is, surgery performed solely to improve appearance in otherwise healthy persons. The aesthetic element of most plastic surgery, however, is directed at improving severe functional impairments caused by bums and other traumatic injuries; to correct acquired or congenital abnormalities, such as cleft lip and cleft palate, facial bone fractures, and tumors; and to compensate for tissue removed in cancer or other surgery, including reconstruction of the breast following mastectomy.

  4. The development of microsurgery in the 1960s and 70s greatly expanded the scope of reconstructive surgery, allowing surgeons to reattach severed fingers and limbs. Exceedingly fine needles and sutures make it possible for the surgeon to rejoin small blood vessels and other minute structures under an operating microscope.

Определите, является ли утверждение:

53. AN OPERATING MICROSCOPE HELPS THE SURGEON TO REJOIN SMALL BLOOD VESSELS AND OTHER MINUTE STRUCTURES.

1) ложным

2) истинным

3) в тексте нет информации

54. PLASTIC SURGERY IS DIRECTED AT CORRECTING SUCH ABNORMALITIES AS CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE, AND TUMOURS.

1) ложным

2) истинным

3) в тексте нет информации

55. PLASTIC SURGERY IS SYNONYMOUS WITH AESTHETIC, OR COSMETIC, SURGERY.

1) в тексте нет информации

2) ложным

3) истинным

56. ELECTION MICROSCOPY ENABLED OBSERVERS TO PEER MORE DEEPLY INTO THE STRUCTURES OF THE CELL.

1) в тексте нет информации

2) ложным

3) истинным

Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:

57. COSMETIC SURGERY IS PERFORMED TO IMPROVE APPEARANCE IN OTHERWISE HEALTHY PEOPLE.

1) 3

2) 1

3) 4

4) 2

58. MODERN TECHNIQUES OF PLASTIC SURGERY WERE AIMED AT REPAIRING THE WOUNDS AND DISFIGUREMENTS OF MILITARY MEN.

1) 2

2) 1

3) 4

4) 3

59. ОТВЕТЬТЕ НА ВОПРОС:

WHAT DOES PLASTIC SURGERY DEAL WITH?

1) It deals with sheets of epithelial cells cultured in vitro.

2) It manufactures synthetic compounds such as silicone.

3) It is largely concerned with the bodily surface.

4) It deals with treating the deep-seated tumors.

60. ОПРЕДЕЛИТЕ ОСНОВНУЮ ИДЕЮ ТЕКСТА

1) The transfer of skin tissue is one of the most common procedures performed in plastic surgery.

2) Surgical reconstruction of the nose has been performed by physicians from time immemorial.

3) Plastic surgery is concerned with the collection and improvement of severe functional impairments.

4) Microsurgery allows surgeons to reattach severed fingers and limbs.

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