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Characteristics of the British

Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

By Kamotskiy Anton

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the UK's public- service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

It is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, with over 20,000 staff in total, of which 16,672 are in public sector broadcasting.

BBC's original "bat's wings" logo used from 1953 until the early 1960s BBC's first three-box logo used from 1958 until 1963

BBC's second three-box logo used from 1963 until 1971 BBC's third three-box logo used from 1971 until 1988 BBC's fourth three-box logo used from 1988 until 1997 BBC's fifth and current three-box logo used since 1997

The birth of British Broadcasting 1920 – 1922

Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio However this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By the Autumn of 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licencing authority, the General Post

Office (GPO), was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.

But by 1922 the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3000 members.Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the Company made its first official broadcast. The Company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers and by a licence fee.

Management Board

The management board is responsible for managing pan-BBC issues delegated to it from the executive board and ensures that the corporation meets its strategic objectives, the board meets three times per month. Current members include: Director General; Tony Hall, Director, Radio; Helen Boaden, Director, Television; Danny Cohen, Director, News and Current Affairs; James Harding, Director, Strategy & Digital; James Purnell, Director, BBC Scotland; Ken MacQuarrie, Director, BBC Cymru Wales; Rhodri Talfan Davies, Director, Northern Ireland; Peter Johnston, Director, Future Media; Ralph Rivera, Director, North; Peter Salmon, Managing Director, Operations and Finance; Anne Bulford, OBE, Director, HR; Lucy Adams, Editorial Policy and Standards; David Jordan, Director, Marketing; Philip Almond, Creative Director; Alan Yentob, CEO BBC Worldwide & Director, Global; Tim Davie.

The headquarters of the BBC at Broadcasting House in Portland Place, London, England. This section of the building is called 'Old Broadcasting

Governance and Corporate Structure

The BBC is a corporation, independent from direct government intervention, with its activities being overseen by the BBC Trust (formerly the Board of Governors). General management of the organization is in the

hands of a Director-

The BBC coat of arms General, who is appointed by the Trust; he is the BBC's Editor-in-Chief and chairs the Executive Board

Finances

The BBC has the second largest budget of any UK-based broadcaster with an operating expenditure of £4.722 billion in 2013/14 compared to £6.471 billion for British Sky Broadcasting in 2013/14 and £1.843 billion for ITV in calendar year 2013

Revenue

According to the BBC's 2013/14 Annual Report, its total income was £5 billion (£5,066.0 million)

£3,726.1 million in license fees collected from householders; £1,023.2 million from the BBC's Commercial Businesses;

£244.6 million from government grants, of which £238.5 million is from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office for the BBC World Service;

£72.1 million from other income, such as rental collections and royalties from overseas broadcasts of programming.

Expenditure

The following expenditure figures are from 2012/13 and show the expenditure of each service they are obliged to provide :