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Етичний інтелектуалізм у публіцистиці Івана Дзюби і Вацлава Гавела.docx
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Аннотация

Зализняк Ю. Б. Этический интеллектуализм в публицистике Ивана Дзюбы и Вацлава Гавела. - Рукопись.

Диссертация представлена на соискание научной степени кандидата филологических наук за специальностью 10.01.08 – журналистика. – Институт журналистики Киевского национального университета имени Тараса Шевченко. – Киев, 2007.

В диссертации впервые в украинской науке осуществлено комплексное исследование этически-интелектуалистского компонента публицистики Ивана Дзюбы и Вацлава Гавела, а также проведен компаративистский анализ их трудов в пределах очерченной тематики. Автор по-новому раскрывает суть этического интеллектуализма как мировоззренческого метода обоих выдающихся публицистов, чьи произведения до сих пор не рассматривались под таким углом зрения. Выяснено, что этический интеллектуализм И. Дзюбы и В. Гавела имеет глубокие национальные и христианские корни и опирается на признание правды как главного мерила качеств бытия человека, народа и государства. Доказана непосредственная связь исследуемых публицистических трудов с социально-историческими чертами развития украинского и чешского народов во времена тоталитаризма, а также существенное влияние текстов Ивана Дзюбы и Вацлава Гавела на формирование нового типа мышления и сознания (направленных на культурно-государственническую самоактуализацию) у их соотечественников и представителей других наций. Особенное место в диссертации занимает анализ публицистической критики нового посткоммунистического мирового порядка, в котором И. Дзюба и В. Гавел видят немало черт, которые позволяют назвать его неототалитаризмом.

Ключевые слова: этический интеллектуализм, публицистика, шестидесятництво, мораль, нация, тоталитаризм, жизнь в правде, жизнь во лжи, глобализация, демократия.

ANNOTATION

Y. B. Zaliznyak. Ethical intellectualism in the publisistic writing of Ivan Dziuba and Vaclav Gavel. – Manuscript.

Thesis for the scholarly degree of Candidate in Philology. Speciality 10.01.08 – Journalism. – Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Institute of Journalism. – Kyiv, 2007.

The dissertation is devoted to complex research of the ethical intellectual component in Ivan Dziuba’s and Vaclav Gavel’s publisistic writing based on the comparative analysis of their works. The author reveals the essence of the ethical intellectualism as a world view method of the two prominent publicists, whose writings have not been examined until now from such angle. Ivan Dziuba’s and Vaclav Gavel’s ethical intellectualism turns out to have deep national and Christian roots, which leans against the confession of truth and as a main criterion of the qualities of human being’s existence, people and state. The direct connection of the explored publisistic writings with the social historical features of Ukrainian and Chekh people development in totalitarian times has been observed there. Their texts substantially influenced the formation of new type of mentality and consciousness in their compatriots and representatives of other nations. Particular attention has been paid to the analysis of publisistic criticism of the new post-communistic world order, which Ivan Dziuba and Vaclav Gavel calls neo-totalitarianism.

Ethical intellectualism in the publicism of Central-Eastern Europe of ХХ - ХХІ centuries is the appropriate reaction of that part of national intelligentsia, which in difficult for people times considers for its moral duty to interfere at least with a word in history, mode of life, people’s world perception for the sake of high-quality transformations. I. Dziuba and V. Havel contrasted their perfect standards of publicistic works to pseudo-intellectual theoretical developments of soviet totalitarianism ideologists. They have used arguments, which deny the right of the hypertrophied state organism for violent transformation of people in denationalized, spiritless and morally handicapped individuals. The representatives of Ukraine and Czech Republic exposed all treachery of ideologies covered by the noble purpose of indeed humane society construction, but in fact did the crimes against humanity on its behalf. Ivan Dziuba and Vaclav Havel witnessed that exactly out of this disproportion the threat for normal life of man, nation and entire world resembled. Dziuba’s and Havel’s publicism deprived totalitarian communism ideology of right to determine the way of humanity development and morally-spiritual growth of each person. Publicists set the new standards of efficiency estimation of state authority, which were directed not on the analysis of purpose, but on the comprehension of methodology of bureaucratic vehicle. At the same time Ivan Dziuba and Vaclav Havel turned an ordinary man on a due to his place in the structure of society, emphasizing on his inalienable right of freedom and free choice. Publicists believe in a man, his intellect, humanity and entrust him with the future of the whole humanity. Publicism of Ivan Dziuba and Vaclav Havel in accordance to the level of the practical application can serve as the standard of didactic art. Their articles and public speeches were always one step forward to the realized necessities of society which, in the end, understands the trouble of its mentors.

Ivan Dziuba’s and Vaclav Havel’s publicism is a vivid example of dualism of the modern publicisistic thought. Part of intellectualists gravitates to the already traditional tendency of liberal democracy principles, with fascination perceiving the globalization and distribution of markets mechanisms of economy organization. These publicists mostly consider that totalitarianism fell due to liberal democracy, which being a winner now, is to determine the evolutional reference points of humanity. On the other hand, the second group of the publicists claim that they are not any alternatives left, which could oppose themselves to the modern world order and finally entail either victory of own principles (more humane, more noble and closer to isothere knowledge) or at least synthesis with the liberal democratic world view which has already applied for a role of an iedogem similar to these, which caused the catastrophes in ХХ century.

Ivan Dziuba and Vaclav Havel undoubtedly belong to the second category of publicists, as they do not abandon the activity for the good of humanity. Both publicists warn other intellectuals about ghostly possibility to comprehend the whole truth of life and from this perspective dictate the rules of life to other. Ivan Dziuba and Vaclav Havel emphasize the necessity of permanent reflections of man who belongs to modern hi-tech, global civilization. In their opinion, only by means of critical self-examination the following basic conclusion comes out: a man knows that until now he knows nothing. Herein not only contribution consists to the father of ethic intellectualism, Socrates, but also key to the rescue of humanity through the new searches of higher piety and self-perfection. Until now Ivan Dziuba and Vaclav Havel did not get off from the pedestal of moral authorities of nation and continue looking closely to the events in all spheres of human vital functions in order to appeal to the public, feeling certain threats, or finding some decision, as they already did it almost half a century ago.

On the basis of analysis, comparison and contrasting Ivan Dziuba’s and Vaclav Havel’s points of view it has been proved that despite the possibility of disagreements in their intellectual perceiving of the tendencies of world development, truth was and remains one of the main quality criteria of conceptions of people and communities cohabitation. At the same time it has been clarified, that publicism plays a very important role in the formation of basic reference points of modern individual in the context of post totalitarian transformations of East European peoples and the whole humanity. Leaning against the ideas shown in the I. Dziuba’s and V. Havel’s texts, the self actualization models of Ukrainian and Czekh people in the globalization period were considered.

Keywords: ethical intellectualism, publicism, shistdesiatnyctvo, moral, nation, totalitarianism, life in a true, life in a lie, liberalism, democracy.

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