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III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

1. How did the war influence fashion?

2. What was the dress code at the theatre?

3. What were women doing during that time?

4. Military style was reflected in fashion, wasn’t it?

5. How did ‘dress for all occasions’ look like?

6. Did people choose cheap materials for their clothes?

7. What was the so-called war crinoline like?

8. Many new fashion houses appeared during the war, didn’t they?

9. What was more popular: dress or pants?

10. What was necessary for fashion industry?

VI Render the text in brief in a written form.

TEXT C

I Mind the following words:

1. city-state – місто-держава

2. craftsman – майстер

3. to enrich – збагачувати

4. luxurious – розкішний

5. merchant – купець

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

1. Linen production in England was very important and allowed for creation of rich fabrics.

2. Powerful European kingdoms had a great impact on fashion.

3. Tailors of that time were not so skilled as they are now.

4. The monarchs were the only persons who could afford rich fabrics.

5. One of the ways displaying the power of kings and queens was clothing.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1. What role did the textile industry play in the sphere of fashion?

2. How did monarchs treat fashion?

Unit 4 fasion history part II

TEXT A

I Listen and remember the following words:

1. dressmaker – швачка

2. to lavish – збагачувати

3. to simplify – спрощувати

4. dye – фарба

5. embellishment – прикраса

6. to undergo – зазнавати

7. pattern – лекало

8. to allow for – брати до уваги

10. ready-to-wear – готовий (одяг)

II Read and remember the following phrases:

1. shifts in taste – зміни стилю

2. power loom (weaving machine) – ткацький верстат

3. steam power – парова тяга

4. at the down – на початку

5. to take smth apart – розібрати на частини

III Read and translate the following text: Fashion evolution

Men and women wore very different clothes at the beginning of the eighteenth century than they did at the end. The skill of tailors and dressmakers had developed to such an extent that clothing styles were lavished with attention to detail and ornament by mid-century. However despite the growing skills of tailors dress became simpler by the end of the century. Great changes reflected the political and cultural life during the century including the American and French Revolutions. Throughout Europe and the newly created United States of America people’s attitude about dress changed. No longer were the monarchs the only trendsetters of fashion. Later toward the end of the century clothing styles began to simplify.

During the nineteenth century dress changed a lot. The change was influenced by shifts in taste but more significantly by the introduction of machines to the construction of clothing. Sewing machines, power looms or weaving machines, steam power, electricity, new dye formulas and other inventions increased the speed and ease of clothing manufacture. These inventions were used to add embellishments to women’s clothing. While the styles for men at the end of the century laid the foundation that would influence men’s clothing for the centuries to come, the styles for women did not. Women’s fashion began to be influenced by fashion designers, the first being Charles Frederick Worth. And in the coming century women would experience much more liberty and a variety of new styles would emerge to reflect this.

The period from the turn of the twentieth century to the end of World War I was one of great transition in the world of fashion. Not only did styles for women undergo a dramatic shift in their basic silhouette but the very system through which new styles were introduced and popularized also changed. Paris was the center of the world of fashion but more and more people got their fashion ideas from magazines. Social changes especially the increasing liberation of women and the coming of war also had a great impact on fashion.

At the dawn of the twentieth century Paris was the center of the fashion world. Clothing designers from Paris introduced clothing at seasonal shows and sold clothes to the wealthiest people in Europe and the United States. Increasingly, however, these fashions began to reach more and more people. Dressmakers outside Paris might buy an expensive gown, take it apart and make a pattern or design of a dress which they sold allowing the dress to be reproduced. Publishers began to sell pattern books of fashionable clothes that allowed people to make the clothes at home if they were good sewers. Soon department stores which were becoming popular throughout the West also began to sew and sell dresses modelled on the latest Paris fashions.

The introduction of the sewing machine combined with the factory system allowed for the mass production of clothing in the nineteenth century. Men’s clothing was the first to be mass-produced in a variety of different sizes. This form of clothing was called ready-to-wear. By the first years of the twentieth century ready-to-wear clothing was available to women too.

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