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2G - GSM / Bulletproof Wireless Security - GSM, UMTS, 802.11, And Ad Hoc Security (2005)

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Bulletproof Wireless Security

Bulletproof Wireless Security

GSM, UMTS, 802.11 and Ad Hoc Security

By

Praphul Chandra

AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON

NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO

SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO

Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier

Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier

30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK

Copyright © 2005, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: permissions@elsevier.com.uk.You may also complete your request online via the Elsevier homepage (www.elsevier.com), by selecting “Customer Support” and then “Obtaining Permissions.”

Recognizing the importance of preserving what has been written, Elsevier prints its books on acid-free paper whenever possible.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

(Application submitted.)

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN: 0-7506-7746-5

For information on all Newnes publications, visit our website at www.books.elsevier.com.

05 06 07 08 09 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Printed in the United States of America

This book is dedicated—

To my parents,

whose love, support and example have helped me reach my goals;

and

To my wife, Shilpy, whose cheerful patience and constant encouragement made this book possible.

 

 

Contents

Preface

..............................................................................................................

xi

“... but where does the voice go?”......................................................................................

xi

A Brief History of Wireless..............................................................................................

xii

A Brief History of Security..............................................................................................

xiv

Moving On .....................................................................................................................

xxii

Reading Conventions.....................................................................................................

xxiii

How to Read this Book?................................................................................................

xxiii

Acknowledgments .............................................................................................

xxv

Acronyms.......................................................................................................

xxvii

About the Author ..........................................................................................

xxxiii

Chapter 1: Security and Cryptography ...................................................................

1

1.1

What is Security?..........................................................................................................

1

1.2

Cryptography ................................................................................................................

3

 

1.2.1 Confidentiality .....................................................................................................

3

 

1.2.2 Integrity................................................................................................................

9

 

1.2.3 Authentication....................................................................................................

11

 

1.2.4 Replay Protection and Nonrepudiation..............................................................

13

1.3

Cryptanalysis ..............................................................................................................

13

1.4

Block Ciphers .............................................................................................................

14

 

1.4.1 Using the Ciphers: The Modes ..........................................................................

15

1.5

Stream Ciphers............................................................................................................

18

1.6

How Secure is Cryptography? ....................................................................................

22

 

1.6.1 Strength of a Cipher...........................................................................................

22

 

1.6.2 Key-Length: How Long is Secure?....................................................................

23

1.7

Beyond Cryptography.................................................................................................

24

 

1.7.1 Firewalls.............................................................................................................

24

 

1.7.2 Denial of Service Attacks ..................................................................................

25

 

1.7.3 Code Security.....................................................................................................

26

 

1.7.4 Steganography....................................................................................................

27

1.8

Conclusion..................................................................................................................

28

Chapter 2: Network Security Protocols.................................................................

29

2.1

Introduction.................................................................................................................

29

2.2

Key Establishment Protocols......................................................................................

29

 

2.2.1 Key Generation in SKC .....................................................................................

30

vii

Contents

 

 

2.2.2 Key Distribution in SKC....................................................................................

30

 

2.2.3 Key Establishment in PKC ................................................................................

31

 

2.2.4 Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange...........................................................................

33

 

2.2.5 Enhanced Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange..........................................................

35

 

2.2.6 RSA....................................................................................................................

35

2.3

Authentication Protocols.............................................................................................

38

 

2.3.1 Address-Based Authentication...........................................................................

38

 

2.3.2 Passwords for Local Authentication (Login).....................................................

39

 

2.3.3 Passwords for Network Authentication .............................................................

41

 

2.3.4 Authentication Using SKC.................................................................................

42

 

2.3.5 Authentication Using PKC.................................................................................

47

 

2.3.6 What to Use for Authentication: SKC or PKC?.................................................

48

 

2.3.7 Session Hijacking ..............................................................................................

49

 

2.3.8 Needham Schroeder...........................................................................................

51

 

2.3.9 Kerberos.............................................................................................................

52

2.4

Encryption Protocols...................................................................................................

54

 

2.4.1 DES....................................................................................................................

56

 

2.4.2 TripleDES or 3DES ...........................................................................................

56

 

2.4.3 AES....................................................................................................................

59

 

2.4.4 RC4....................................................................................................................

60

2.5

Integrity Protocols.......................................................................................................

61

 

2.5.1 CBC Residue......................................................................................................

61

 

2.5.2 CRC32 ...............................................................................................................

62

 

2.5.3 MD5...................................................................................................................

63

Chapter 3: Security and the Layered Architecture..................................................

67

3.1

Introduction.................................................................................................................

67

3.2

Security at Layer 1......................................................................................................

68

3.3

Security at Layer 2......................................................................................................

69

 

3.3.1 Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)........................................................

69

 

3.3.2 EAPoL: EAP Over LAN....................................................................................

72

 

3.3.3 EAP-TLS: TLS Handshake Over EAP..............................................................

73

3.4

Security at Layer 3......................................................................................................

75

3.5

Security at Layer 4: SSL/TLS.....................................................................................

80

3.6

Security at Layer 5+....................................................................................................

84

Chapter 4: Voice-Oriented Wireless Networks ......................................................

85

4.1

The Wireless Medium.................................................................................................

86

 

4.1.1 Radio Propagation Effects .................................................................................

86

 

4.1.2 Hidden Terminal Problem..................................................................................

88

 

4.1.3 Exposed Terminal Problem................................................................................

89

 

4.1.4 Bandwidth..........................................................................................................

89

 

4.1.5 Other Constraints ..............................................................................................

90

4.2

The Cellular Architecture............................................................................................

90

4.3

TWNs: First Generation..............................................................................................

93

 

4.3.1 Addresses in AMPS ...........................................................................................

96

viii

 

 

Contents

 

4.3.2 Call Setup in AMPS...........................................................................................

97

4.4

TWNs: Second Generation.........................................................................................

98

 

4.4.1 Addresses in GSM ...........................................................................................

102

 

4.4.2 Call Setup in GSM...........................................................................................

103

4.5

TWNs: Third Generation..........................................................................................

104

 

4.5.1 Connection Setup in UMTS.............................................................................

106

4.6

The Overall Picture...................................................................................................

107

Chapter 5: Data-Oriented Wireless Networks.....................................................

109

5.1

WLANs.....................................................................................................................

109

 

5.1.1: Addresses in 802.11........................................................................................

114

 

5.1.2 Connection Setup in 802.11.............................................................................

114

 

5.1.3 Media Access...................................................................................................

117

 

5.1.4 Spectrum Efficiency in 802.11.........................................................................

120

5.2

MANETs...................................................................................................................

121

 

5.2.1 MAC for MANETs..........................................................................................

123

 

5.2.2 Routing in MANETs........................................................................................

124

 

5.2.3 Address Allocation in MANETs......................................................................

126

 

5.2.4 Security in MANETs.......................................................................................

127

5.3

Wireless Networks in the Near Future......................................................................

127

Chapter 6: Security in Traditional Wireless Networks ..........................................

129

6.1

Security in First Generation TWNs ..........................................................................

129

6.2

Security in Second Generation TWNs......................................................................

129

 

6.2.1 Anonymity in GSM..........................................................................................

130

 

6.2.2 Key Establishment in GSM .............................................................................

131

 

6.2.3 Authentication in GSM ...................................................................................

132

 

6.2.4 Confidentiality in GSM....................................................................................

136

 

6.2.5 What’s Wrong with GSM Security? ................................................................

137

6.3

Security in 2.5 Generation TWNs.............................................................................

140

 

6.3.1 WAP ................................................................................................................

142

 

6.3.2 Code Security...................................................................................................

144

6.4

Security in 3G TWNs ...............................................................................................

144

 

6.4.1 Anonymity in UMTS .......................................................................................

144

 

6.4.2 Key Establishment in UMTS...........................................................................

146

 

6.4.3 Authentication in UMTS..................................................................................

146

 

6.4.4 Confidentiality in UMTS.................................................................................

150

 

6.4.5 Integrity Protection in UMTS..........................................................................

151

 

6.4.6 Putting the Pieces Together..............................................................................

152

 

6.4.7 Network Domain Security ...............................................................................

155

6.5

Summary...................................................................................................................

158

Chapter 7: Security in Wireless Local Area Networks ..........................................

159

7.1

Introduction...............................................................................................................

159

7.2

Key Establishment in 802.11....................................................................................

160

 

7.2.1 What’s Wrong? ................................................................................................

160

7.3

Anonymity in 802.11................................................................................................

161

ix

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