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3. Возвратные и усилительные местоимения

Возвратные и усилительные местоимения образуются с помощью суффикса –self, имеющего значение себя, сам. Во множественном числе этот суффикс приобретает форму -selves.

Вот список этих местоимений:

I

my

myself [maI'self]

я сам

you

your

yourself [jO:'self]

ты сам, Вы сами

he

him

himself [hIm'self]

он сам

she

her

herself [hq:'self]

она сама

it

it

itself [It'self]

оно само

we

our

ourselves ["auq'selvz]

мы сами

your

your

yourselves [jO:'selvz]

вы сами

they

them

themselves [D(q)m'selvz]

они сами

Перечисленные в этом списке местоимения имеют две функции: возвратную и усилительную.

Усилительные местоимения соответствуют русскому сам:

We ourselves saw hem.

Мы сами их видели.

You must do it yourself.

Ты сам должен это сделать.

Возвратные местоимения соответствуют русским -ся, себя:

Не burned himself.

Он обжегся (обжег себя).

They saw themselves in the looking-glass.

Они увидели себя в зеркале.

Заметьте, что в русском языке себя и -ся подходят ко всем случаям: я оделся, он оделся, мы знаем себя, они знают себя и т. д. Но в английском языке эти местоимения согласуются с подлежащим в числе, лице и роде: Не saw himself, she saw herself, they saw themselves.

Прочтите и переведите:

I use it myself. My child dresses himself. She thinks so herself. The article itself is not bad, but I did not like the end. Children can do it themselves. Don't take that map: I need it myself.

Словообразование

4. Словопроизводство с помощью изменения произношения

В уроке 6 вы узнали о характерном явлении английского языка, называемом конверсией. Повторите этот раздел. Дополним сказанное там.

В подавляющем большинстве слова, которые являются разными частями речи, но имеют аналогичное значение и совпадают по написанию, произносятся одинаково. Например:

love [lAv] любовь, любить

form [fO:m] форма, формировать

quiet ['kwaiqt] тишина, тихий

Однако есть некоторое количество слов, которые пишутся одинаково, но имеют различие в произношении. Большей частью эти различия заключаются в чередовании звуков [s] и [z] или в переносе ударения.

use [ju:s] польза

— to use [ju:z] пользоваться

close [klqus] близко

— to close [klquz] закрывать

perfect ['pq:fikt] совершенный

— to perfect ['pq:fekt] совершенствовать

conduct ['kOndqkt] поведение

— to conduct ['kqn'dAkt] вести

Совет: Если вы интересуетесь звуковой стороной языка, проверяйте по словарю произношение слов, которые вы встречаете в качестве новых частей речи.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ В ЧТЕНИИ

[A]: gun, sun, us, rush, jump, dust, ton, one [wAn], enough [i'nAf]

[Q:]: grass, glass, Clark, graph, sharp, yard [jQ:d], laugh [lQ:f]

Прочтите и переведите текст.

TAKING THE PHOTOGRAPH OF A RHINO

(A true story told by the man who took the photograph)

I

One day, while Clark [klQ:k] and I with a Masai (1) conductor were walking past some very high grass, the conductor stopped and pointed. We looked where he was pointing and we saw among the high grass a great grey body. It was the back of a great rhino lying in the grass. The conductor closed his eyes to show me that the rhino was sleeping.

We walked very quietly until we were only thirty yards from the animal. Then we could see that it was a huge rhino, weighing at least (2) two tons. He was sleeping quietly. We could see his grey skin rising and falling with his breath, and his little pig's eyes were closed. His big flat nose, with its sharp cruel horn, was nearest to us. Each breath blew on the grass near his nose. The warm African sunlight was shining on his huge grey body.

Very quietly I got my camera ready to take the photograph. The conductor stood near me on my left side and Clark stood on my right side, with his gun in his hands. We did not kill the animals which we photographed, unless our lives were in danger, and Clark always fired his gun in the air when I took my pictures to make the animals turn away from me.

Everything was ready. I stood with my camera right in front of the rhino and I was so close that I could see his nose moving with his breath. I even saw a fly walk across his head. We waited for several minutes but the animal continued to sleep; and as I wanted to photograph him when he was moving, I took a deep breath (3) and shouted "Hey!"

In a moment he was up. Although he was so huge, he moved very rapidly. For a moment he stood looking at us. What did he see? A rhino has very weak sight and he cannot see anything clearly which is more than fifteen or twenty yards away. We were nearly thirty yards away from him, so he could not see us well, but he saw something. For a few moments he stood there. Then he put his head down (4) and rushed at us.

II

My camera was pointed at him, and as I looked through the little glass I could see the great rhino rushing towards me. As he got nearer he seemed to get bigger. When he was fifteen yards away he looked as big as a railway train. With my camera near my eye I waited to get my picture. The ground under my feet shook with the great weight of the rushing rhino. His little red eyes were cruel and angry. When the rhino was near enough (5) I pressed the button of my camera and took my picture. The huge animal was almost touching me.

At that moment, Clark fired his gun in order to make the animal turn away from me. But the animal paid no attention at all (6) and came straight on. I jumped to one side, quicker than I had ever jumped before. As I did so, I knew I was safe, but the rhino was almost on top of the Masai conductor. There was a cloud of dust and I saw the man's body thrown into the air. The rhino rushed on and away from us. We did not see him again.

Clark and I ran to the place where the Masai was lying on the ground. We were sure that he was either dead or dying. No man can be thrown up into the air by a rhino's horn and live. But just as we reached him, the conductor jumped up laughing. No, he was neither dead nor dying. The rhino's horn had not touched him, for (7) that jump into the air had been his own.

When a rhino is rushing towards an enemy, he holds his head so that he can see. When he is close, he puts his head down so that the sharp point of his horn is in front. Therefore, just for a moment he cannot see in front of him, and in that moment the Masai jumped to one side. The rhino rushes on and usually does not stop until he is out of sight. This is how our conductor had saved himself.

Примечания

(1) Masai — название африканской народности

(2) at least — по меньшей мере

(3) I took a deep breath — я глубоко вздохнул

(4) put … down — нагнул

(5) near enough — достаточно близко

(6) paid no attention at all — не обратил никакого внимания. Сочетание at all усиливает отрицание, как русское вовсе.

Например:

I see you are busy. — Not at all. Я вижу, вы заняты. — Нет, ничуть (вовсе нет).

(7) for — здесь значит так как, ибо

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