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Index 1341

side relief, acid sulfite pulping process

chemistry 429

silo reclaimer, chip storage 102

silo storage, chips 101

silo-stored hardwood chips, Acer saccharum

99

silver birch, chemical composition of wood

23

silver maple, average moisture content 125

simple pit, softwood fibers 123

single-disc refiner 1105

single electron transfer

degradation mechanism 320

hydrogen peroxide reactions 852

single elements, determination 1221–1224

single fibers

cell dimensions and chemical

composition 4

defibration 1083

flexibility 1276

properties 1275–1278

stress-strain curves 1012

suspended 1272

single log layer chipping 82

single O2–excited state 645–646

single-phase model, crystallinity 1258

single pulp fibers, stress-strain

characteristics 1277

single-stage oxygen deligniflcation system,

process flowsheet 732

single-vessel continuous cooking system,

outline 377

single-vessel hydraulic digester

downflow 390

EMCC®/ITC 386

Lo-Solids™ process 388

MCC 383

single wet fibers, parameters 1275

sisal, cell dimensions and chemical

composition 4

Sitka spruce, average moisture content 125

b-sitosterol 37

Sivola processes 468–471

aspen cooks 468

size-exclusion chromatography 1252, 1254

water prehydrolyzate from beechwood 340

slaked lime 986

slaker 989

slaking 987–988

slash pine, sorbed sodium–pH relation 520

slewing screw reclaimer, chip storage 103

sludge 1004

wastewater treatment 1007

smelt 982, 986

calculation 983

kraft recovery boiler 985

sodium carbonate 987

smelt dissolving 988

weak wash 990

SO2 see sulfur dioxide

soap skimming 967

displacement cooking process step 371

soda-AQ 178, 194–195, 201–202, 211, 321,

345

effects on Eucalyptus grandis pulping 325

see also AQ

soda boiler 962

soda pulping process, discovery 6

sodium

comparative evaluation of diffusion

coefficients 149–150

distribution between fiber wall and external

solution 419

effect on kraft cooking kinetics models

207

sorption as function of pH 520

sodium-based two-stage sulfite pulping, pHdependency

of delignification, pulp yield

and acetyl content 473–474

sodium borohydride

cellulose protecting additive 819

decomposition by hydrogen gas 1236

post-treatment 822–824

pulp bleaching 1125

sodium carbonate 987

conversion 986

sodium chlorate, reduction 741

sodium dithionite, commercial grades 1125

sodium hydroxide 987

concentration 703

sodium peroxide, industrial bleaching 849

sodium silicate stabilization, pulp bleaching

1129

softening, fibers 1080–1083

softwood fibers

cell dimensions and chemical

composition 4

heterogeneity 123

softwood kraft pulp

comparison of different cooking

conditions 234

oxygen delignification 713, 723

selectivity 838

TCF bleaching with peracetic acid 882

1342 Index

softwood kraft pulping, interdependence of

temperature, cooking time and effective

alkali 251

softwood PHK, representative dissolving

pulp 1036

softwood sawmills, profiling line 88

softwood structure 50–54

softwood-sulfite dissolving pulp 1036

R18 content 955

softwood xylan, structural changes 252–256

softwoods

accessory compounds 35–37

annual ring 51

axial parenchyma 51

bleaching 882, 1126

bordered pits 123

cellulose 22

chemical composition of wood 23

chip pile dimensions 99

chipper canter 88

defibration conditions 1102

diterpenes 35

fats and fatty acids 36

flavonoids 37

hemicellulose 22

lignans 37

lignin 22

lignins 33

macromolecular substances 22

monoterpenes 35

oleoresin 35

penetrability 135

phenolic compounds 37

pits 46, 123

pulp 1010

pulp bleaching 1126

rays 51

resin acids 35–36

resin canals 52

resin ducts 51

resin-rich 465

sesquiterpenic tropolone derivates 35

stilbene 37

tall oil 36

tracheids 51

tropolone derivates 35

waxes 36

xylan 29, 252–256

soil-contaminated, waste generation 105

solid-phase NMR spectroscopy 1261–1262

solid-solid separation, liquid environment

562

solid-state NMR spectroscopy 168

solid waste 1006

municipal 1181–1182

solids concentration, thick liquor 974

solubility

alkali 1229

ozone 780–781

pulp constituents 937

solubility of oxygen, equilibrium conditions

692

solubilization, ozone 802

soluble fraction, alkali solubility tests 1060

solution viscosity 1248–1251

Solvay process, chlorine dioxide generation

742

solvent retention 1268

solvents, cellulose 1240–1241

sootblowing steam, kraft recovery boiler 985

sorbed manganese, as function of pH 523

sorbed sodium, as function of pH 520

sorption, pulp washing theory 519–523

sorted recovered paper, handling 1189

sorting, recovered paper 1187–1190

southem pine, effect of polysulfide 312

southern mixed hartwood, pulp yield as

function of kappa number 230

southern pine, pulp yield as function of kappa

number 230

southern red oak, average moisture content

125

specialty papers, utilization rate 1169

specific consumption, active kraft cooking

chemicals 221

specific drainage resistance 515

specific light absorption coefficient

residual softwood lignin 266

unbleached pine 269

specific surface

as function of fiber concentration 514

dry fibers 1267

specific volume, pulp bleaching 1131

specific yield loss 949

spectroscopy

cellular UV 44

energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy 40

Fourier transmission infra-red 159

NMR 31, 168, 173–174, 254

Raman 117, 178

solid-phase NMR spectroscopy 1261–1262

time-of-flight secondary ion mass

spectroscopy 60

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy 60

spent sulfite liquor 448, 962

spermatophytes, lignin 30

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