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Further reading

  1. Focus on Britain. – London: Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 1993. – 40 p.

  2. Sheerin S. Spotlight on Britain [2-d edition] / S. Sheerin, J. Seath, G. White. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. – 140 p.

  3. Vaughan-Rees M. In Britain /M. Vaughan-Rees, P. Byström, S. Bateman. – М.: Титул, 1997. – 122 р.

 It is important to remember that Southern Ireland – that is the Republic of Ireland (also called Eire) – is completely independent.

** The Isle of Wight, the Orkneys, Hebrides and Shetlands are part of the United Kingdom, although the Isle of Man is not.

*** The flag is normally called the Union Jack because it represents a union of countries – England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

**** Wales was united with England in 1536.

*The Wars of the Roses were a series of civil wars fought in medieval England from 1455 to 1485 between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. The name Wars of the Roses is based on the badges used by the two sides, the red rose for the Lancastrians and the white rose for the Yorkists.

** The battle of Crecy (1346) was fought during the Hundred Years War between the English and the French. The English won a decisive victory in this battle thanks to the value of Welsh longbows used.

* For centuries people from overseas have settled in Britain, either to escape political or religious persecution or in search of better economic opportunities. Jewish refugees who came to Britain towards the end of the 19th century and in the 1930s were followed by other European refuges after 1945. Substantial immigration from the former colonies in the Caribbean and South Asian sub-continent dated principally from the 1950s and 1960s. There are also sizable groups from the United States and Canada, as well as Australians, Chinese, Greek and Turkish Cypriots, Italians and Spaniards.


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