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  • the text type, or genre (for example, an election poster, a recipe, a sermon);

  • Its topic, purpose, and function;

  • the immediate temporaty and physical setting of the text;

  • the text’s wider social, cultural, and historical setting;

  • writer (speaker) and reader (hearer);

  • the relationships holding between the writer (speaker) and reader (hearer);

  • the associations with other similar or related text types (intertextuality);

Self-check test

  1. What is text linguistics?

  2. What are the possible classifications of texts?

  3. What does functional classification of texts include?

  4. What does situational classification of texts include?

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  5. What does strategic classification of texts deal with?

  6. Describe the nature of text.

  7. What makes the nature of discourse?

  8. Point to the difference between textual and contextual meaning.

Recommended Readings

  1. Beaugrande R. de, Dressier W. Introduction to Text Linguistics. - Longman Pub Group, 1981. - 288 p.

  2. Clark E. History, Theory, Text: Historians and the Linguistic Turn. - Harvard University Press, 2004. - 336 p.

  3. Halliday M. A.K. Linguistic Studies of Text and Discourse - Continuum, 2006.-320 p.

  4. Forey G., Thompson G. Text Type and Texture (Functional Linguistics). - Equinox Publishing, 2010. - 304 p.

  5. Jargen E. Introduction to English Text-linguistics (Textbooks in English Language and Linguistics). - Peter Lang, 2009. - 210 p.

  6. Rudanko J. Linguistic Analysis and Text Interpretation. - University Press of America, 1997. - 144 p.

  7. Salkie R. Text and Discourse Analysis (Language Workbooks). - Routledge, 1995 -128 p.

  8. Titscher S., Meyer M., Wodak R. Methods of Text and Discourse Analysis.- Sage Publications Ltd, 2000. - 288 p.

  9. Virtanen t. Approaches to Cognition through Text and Discourse (Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs). - Mouton De Gruyter, 2004. - 350 p.

Lecture 10

Components of communication connected with

communicative situation


  1. Styles of communication.

  2. The system of functional styles.

  3. Rhetoric and communication.

  4. Cross-cultural communication.

  1. Styles of communication

Every time we speak, we choose and use one of four basic communication styles: assertive, aggressive, passive and passive-aggressive.

Assertive communication

The most effective and healthiest form of communication is the assertive style. It's how we naturally express ourselves when our selfesteem is intact, giving us the confidence to communicate without games and manipulation. When we are being assertive, we work hard to create mutually satisfying solutions. We communicate our needs clearly and forthrightly. We care about the relationship and strive for a win situation. We know our limits and refuse to be pushed beyond them just because someone else wants or needs something from us. Surprisingly, assertive is the style most people use least.

Aggressive communication

Aggressive communication always involves manipulation. We may attempt to make people do what we want by inducing guilt (hurt) or by using intimidation and control tactics (anger). Covert or overt, we simply want our needs met - and right now! Although there are a few arenas where aggressive behavior is called for (i.e., sports or war), it will never work in a relationship. Ironically, the more aggressive sports rely heavily on team members and rational coaching strategies. Even war might be avoided if we could learn to be more assertive and negotiate to solve our problems.

Passive communication

Passive communication is based on compliance and hopes to avoid confrontation at all costs. In this mode we don't talk much, question even less, and actually do very little. We just don't want to rock the boat. Passives have learned that it is safer not to react and better to disappear than to stand up and be noticed.

Passive-aggressive communication

A combination of styles, passive-aggressive avoids direct confrontation (passive), but attempts to get even through manipulation (aggressive). If you've ever thought about making that certain someone who needs to be "taught a thing or two" suffer (even just a teeny bit), you've stepped pretty close to (if not on into) the devious and sneaky world of the passive-aggressive. This style of communication often leads to office politics and rumour-mongering.

Clearly, for many reasons, the only healthy communication style is assertive communication. Surely you can identify many people in your own life that favor each of the four styles. Most of us use a combination of these four styles, depending on the person or situation. The styles we choose generally depend on what our past experiences have taught us will woric best to get our needs met in each specific situation. If you take a really good look at yourself, you've probably used each throughout your lifetime. Understanding the four basic types of communication will help leara how to react most effectively when confronted with a difficult person. It will also help recognize when you are using manipulative behavior to get your own needs met Remember, you always have a choice as to which communication style you use. If you're serious about taking control of your life, practice being more assertive. It will help you diffuse anger, reduce guilt and build relationships - both personally and professionally.

Communication styles and communication style modes (by Christopher L. Heffner)

Christopher L. Heffner singles out 3 communication styles. They are passive, assertive, aggressive. Table 1 points to typical characteristics of each of the styles.

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