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ОТМК методичка (4 курс).docx
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Self-check test

  1. What is discourse analysis?

  2. Z.Harris used the term .... (what term was used)?

  3. What was initiated by Harvey Sacks?

  4. Define discourse.

  5. Describe the connection between discourse and social practice.

  6. What is conversation?

  7. What is exchange in conversation?

  8. What is convergence or accomodation?

  9. What are the requirements for successful conversation?

  10. Describe 4 maxims of communication.

Recommended Readings

  1. Harris Z. Discourse Analysis Reprints. - Mouton: ISt Edition edition, 1963.-73 p.

  2. Howarth D. Discourse (Concepts in the Social Sciences). - Open University Press, 2000. - 176 p.

  3. Hymes D. Language in Culture and Society: A Reader in Linguistics and Anthropology. - HarperCollins, 1977.

  4. Garfinkel H. Studies in Ethnomethodology. - Polity, 1991. - 304 p.

  5. Gee J. An Introduction to Discourse Analysis: Theory and Method. - Routledge, 2010,- 224 p.

  6. Gee J. Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in Discourses. - Routledge, 2011. - 248 p.

  7. Grenoble L. Endangered Languages: Language Loss and Community Response. - Cambridge University Press, 2000. - 320 p.

  8. Gumperz J. Discourse Strategies (Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics). - Cambridge University Press, 1982. - 240 p.

  9. Mills S. Discourse. (The New Critical Idiom). - Routledge, 2004. - 176 p. lO.Sacks H. Social Science and Conversation Analysis. - Oxford University

Press, USA, 1998.-232 p.

ll.Scollon R., Scollon S. Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1995.

Lecture 9 Text as a result and unit of communication Plan

  1. Text as an object of analysis.

  2. Text typology.

2.a. Functional classijication.

2.b. Situational classification.

  1. c. Strategic classijication.

  2. Text and discourse.

  1. a. The nature of text

  1. b. The nature of discourse

  1. Text as an object of analysis

Linguistic discipline which analyzes the linguistic regularities and constitutive features of texts is called text linguistics. It has developed since the 1960s from its structuralist foundations (tagmemics, text analysis, the Prague School) and has been integrated into the research foundations of stylistics and rhetoric. The historical significance of text linguistics lies in the feet that it overcame the narrow sentence- specific perspective of linguistics and thereby created a basis for the interdisciplinary study of texts. The development of the discipline is reflected in the various definitions of text. If one defines ‘text’ as a sequence of sentences and thereby a unit of the linguistic system, text linguistics is an expanded sentence grammar and therefore constitutes discourse grammar. The methods of sentence analysis are transferred to transphrastic analysis and lead to the composition of text grammatical rules of cohesion. If one understands ‘text’ as a communicative unit, further features like text junction or text theme result from text-grammatical regularities. In this broader framework, which includes text grammar, text linguistics includes the following problems: (a) general aspects of structural and functional text constituents, i.e. textuality; (b) classification of texts in the framework of a text typology; (c) problems concerning the integration of stylistics and rhetoric; (d) interdisciplinary-oriented research in the direction of text reworking and comprehensibility.

  1. Text typology

Text typology is concerned with the identification of the criteria leading to the classification (typology) of texts (or text types, text classes, styles, genres). Depending on the criteria adopted, there are several possibilities of classifying the texts. Using some of the most obvious criteria, texts can be classified as spoken or written, dialogical or monological, spontaneous (unprepared) or ritual (prepared), informal or formal, individual (personal) and interindividual (interpersonal), private or public (official, institutional), subjective or objective, interactional (contact- oriented) and transactional (message-oriented), etc. However, all text types identified on the basis of a single criterion, in contrast with those based on several criteria {simplex vs. complex styles, K. Hausenblas 1972; secondary vs. primary styles, Mistrik 1997), often include instances which may reveal a more complicated patterning of features than those suggested by these dichotomies; for example, news bulletin scripts read by newscasters, dictation of a letter to a secretaiy, ritualized exchanges (greetings, politeness formulae) characterizing conversations, interactional features contained in otherwise transactional encounters (lectures). Dolnfk and Bajzikova (1998) maintain that it is possible to approach texts as either theoretical linguistic constructs (text typology), or as concrete “psychological realities” (text classification). The latter approach is based on the intuition possessed by every language user which is acquired through his/her practical experience with the production of texts and which represents a component of his/her communicative (stylistic) competence. The authors have it that one of the most important criteria is based on the study of the ways that dominating communicative functions of texts determine the choice of expressive means of language; e.g., in appeals, warnings, public notices the conative function dominates, in congratulations or expressions of sympathy it is the phatic function, in research reports the representational function, in advertising the persuasive function, etc. Functional approach is present in the elaboration of functional perspective initiated by the Prague school of functional stylistics and the elaboration of the theory of functional styles (K. Havranek, M. Jelfnek); it is also present in the approaches of Gal’perin (1977) who differentiates five functional styles of English (the publicistic, newspaper, scientific prose, belles- lettres styles and the style of official documents), and of Crystal and Davy (1969) who offered an in-depth analysis of five 'languages' (conversation, unscripted commentary, religion, newspaper reporting and legal documents), but suggested possibilities for the study of other varieties as well (the language of TV and press advertising, public speaking, written instructions, broadcast talks and news, science, the civil service and the spoken legal language). It should be noted that the variation based on the functional (contextual) criterion represents one of the three principal types of variation of national language (the other two being regional and social variation). Using the degree of abstraction (generalization) as the main criterion of text typology, the functional styles could stand at the top, followed by the styles of particular social groups and/or traditions of literaiy writing (interindividual styles), the styles of an individual authors (individual or personal styles) and the styles of individual texts (singular styles). The criterion of the 'global area of activity' as proposed by Dolnfk and Bajzikova is close to the identification of functional styles in that they identify journalistic, economic, political, legal and scientific texts. We consider this empirically based text classification firmly rooted in the structural- functional theory of text (toward which language users intuitively orient) as a viable approach since it integrates the criteria of communicative function, situation (context) and strategy.

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