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Устная практика- задания (Меркулова) / World around us / CLIMATE, WEATHER, SEASONS – STUDENT’S BOOK UNITS 4-6.docx
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        1. Although the seasonal differences in Britain are not as extreme as in some countries, there is still a large difference between winter and summer. The year is split into four seasons roughly each 3 months long, though the weather in Britain can be very erratic _____(1).  

        2. Winter is the coldest month in the UK, running roughly from December to February (although November can often suffer very wintry conditions too). Temperatures often get as low as freezing point (0oC), though not too much colder usually. _____ (2) British winters are usually very wet and windy as well, so make sure you wrap up warm and waterproof. To add to the miserable weather, the hours of daylight are very short during the winter, _____ (3). 

        3. Spring in the UK is all about new life springing up after the harsh conditions of winter. From March (roughly), the temperatures start to get warmer, frosts get less frequent and the days start to get longer. _____ (4) However, spring is often still quite wet and windy in Britain, so don’t crack out the sunglasses and flip flops too early. 

        4. In theory, summer in the UK should be hot and dry. In practice, it is only hot in spells and it still rains quite a bit most summers. _____ (5) On such days, temperatures can reach 30oC, though not much higher, and the British public make the most of it. _____ (6) in the hot temperatures. This is matched by the increased hours of daylight, which reach almost 17 hours in London in mid June.  

        5. Autumn marks the gradual change from summer to winter and is probably the season with the biggest range in weather conditions. Septembers and even Octobers in Britain can often still be summery, recently even recording higher temperatures than August. Equally, Novembers can be very cold, and the UK sometimes even experiences widespread snowfalls (like in 2010). _____ (7) in autumn though it is so variable that one year after another, autumns can seem like different seasons.

        6. TASK 34. You are going to read some season observations from Donna L. Long, a blogger and naturalist from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

        7. Step 1. Fill in the gaps in the texts with the words and phrases given in the boxes below. Be ready to translate the texts into your mother tongue.

        8. Us Nature in Winter

                1. hibernate

                1. habitats

                1. migrate

                1. food

                1. dramatic

                1. replaced

                1. coating

                1. productive

                1. creak and sway

                1. burrows

        9. In Philadelphia, winter sets in December. Nature in winter is a time of struggle and beauty. Winter signals the end of a long ______ (1) year. Plants shut down, making ______ (2) for those animals and birds that stay for the winter in their native ______ (3). Some animals and insects like turtles, wood frogs and spotted salamanders burrow deep into the mud to ______ (4). Woodchucks and chipmunks sleep the winter away snug in their ______ (5). Bears sleep too, but are easily awoken during winter. Other animals and birds ______ (6) to warmer climates.

        10. Winter weather in the beautiful Delaware River Valley has the most ______ (7) changes. It seems one week is filled with the last balmy days of autumn to be ______ (8) overnight with bone-chilling cold. The wind picks up and trees ______ (9) in the wind. The water in pond and lakes freezes, and the top layer of ice serves as a protective ______ (10) for the fish and animals in the depths below.

        11. Us Nature in Spring

                1. pollinate

                1. joy

                1. flyways

                1. crevices

                1. equator

                1. hibernating

                1. creep out

                1. nesting

                1. equinox

                1. territories

                1. mating

                1. buds

        12. In the Northern Hemisphere, spring begins in March with the ______ (1), when day and night are of equal length, and the sun is directly above the Earth’s ______ (2).

        13. In early spring, all plants wake up from their long winter sleep and show their ______ (3) with colours. Fruit tree ______ (4) swell and bloom. Bees fly through the air to ______ (5) tree blossoms, shrubs and native flowers.

        14. For ______ (6) animals and insects, this season is a time to emerge from their winter sleeping places. Salamanders, toads and frogs ______ (7) from under the water or from their burrows deep in the soil, and frogs start singing their ______ (8) songs. Butterflies come out after overwintering in tree (9). Young mammals migrate to establish their own home ______ (10).

        15. Birds migrate north and use ______ (11) they may have used in the autumn to go south. They stake out their breeding, ______ (12) and feeding territories so they may raise their young. The air is filled with birdsong.

        16. Us Nature in Summer

                1. activity

                1. temperatures

                1. produce

                1. solstice

                1. fruiting

                1. interior

                1. continent

                1. fill

                1. plains

                1. migrate

                1. Hemisphere

                1. moisture

        17. Summer season begins on the summer ______ (1) on June 21 or 22. It is the longest day and the shortest night of the year. The Northern ______ (2) has summer in June, July, August and September. Nature in summer is bursting at the seams with life and ______ (3). It is the warmest time of the year with high ______ (4), long hot days and uncomfortable warm nights. The calls of crickets and frogs ______ (5) the night air.

        18. The eastern half of the North American ______ (6), from the Rocky Mountains eastward, experiences warm, humid weather. Warm southern winds carry ______ (7) north from the Gulf of Mexico to central and eastern North America. The warmest temperatures are in the ______ (8) of the continent, namely the prairie and ______ (9) regions.

        19. Summer is the ______ (10) season. Many vines, shrubs, trees and flowering plants ______ (11) fleshy fruit to entice birds to eat them.

        20. Birds nest and raise their young in summer, and by late summer, some of them begin to ______ (12) to their warm weather homes.

        21. Us Nature in Autumn

                1. needles

                1. harvest

                1. steadier

                1. conifers

                1. fattening

                1. storms

                1. deciduous

                1. approaches

                1. abundant

                1. frost

                1. reminder

                1. climates

                1. wicked

                1. hibernation

                1. hitch a ride

        22. Autumn is a season of change from summer to winter. It is known as ‘fall’ in some parts of North America because of the falling leaves of ______ (1) trees. With its clear, crisp and cool days fall is one of the best times of year.

        23. The autumn weather changes to cooler temperatures, and it can be really ______ (2). In some areas, September is the month for the most rainfall, due to tropical ______ (3) and hurricanes. The fair weather of Indian summer comes as a pleasant ______ (4) of recent days gone by, as the temperatures grow colder.

        24. Deciduous trees delight eyes with brilliant colors of gold, orange and red. ______ (5) or evergreen trees remain green throughout the year and drop their ______ (6) mostly in the spring.

        25. Plants cast their seeds on the wind, ______ (7) on a passer-by or get eaten and dispersed by hungry animals ______ (8) up for the coming winter.

        26. Autumn is a ______ (9) time when gardeners and farmers gather apples, pears, pumpkins, squash and corn. However, they watch out for the first killing ______ (10), which signals the end of the growing season.

        27. Many animals begin their migration to milder temperatures and a ______ (11) food supply. Birds of prey migrate south to find more ______ (12) food sources. Some animals, including bats, chipmunks, woodchucks and bears, go into a deep ______ (13) sleep. Many insects die as the colder weather of winter ______ (14). Several species of butterflies migrate to warmer ______ (15).

        28. TASK 35. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and adverbs where necessary. Options are possible.

  1. ____ our parts winter sets ____ ____ the end ____ December.

  2. ____ a hard frost the rivers and ponds are frozen ____.

  3. When the temperature falls ____ 20 degrees ____ zero, it gets really very cold.

  4. London is famous ____ its fogs. Especially often they have fogs ____ autumn.

  5. When a thick fog spreads ____ the city, people can’t see each other at arm’s length.

  6. ____ heavy rains we are ____ ____ a spell ____ fine weather again.

  7. It looks like rain, the sky is covered ____ dark clouds, a cold wind is blowing ____ the sea.

  8. It’s a lovely sight when everything is covered ____ hoarfrost and glistens ____ the sun.

  9. I prefer to stay indoors ____ rainy weather.

  10. Nature looks ____ its best ____ early spring.

  11. Indian summer is a short period ____ warm sunny weather ____ the beginning ____ autumn.

  12. The temperature has fallen ____ zero and it is freezing.

  13. If the weather keeps fine we can go ____ the country ____ Sunday.

  14. It’s pouring ____ rain. You’d better stay indoors.