Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:

Obstetrics_by_Ten_Teachers_19E_-_Kenny_Louise

.pdf
Скачиваний:
22
Добавлен:
27.02.2016
Размер:
5.6 Mб
Скачать

 

 

 

 

316

Index

 

 

 

neural tube defects

patient-controlled analgesic device

morbidly adherent, 246

 

case history, 80–1

(PCA), 204

normal placentation, 120

 

screening, 57

Peel Report, 14

placenta accreta, 246–7

 

neurological disorders, 147–9

pelvic floor exercises, 269

placenta increta, 246–7

 

Neville Barnes forceps, 232

pelvic inflammatory disease, 4

placenta percreta, 246–7

 

Newborn Life Support Course, 283–4

pelvic organs, abnormalities of, 87–8

placenta praevia, 65, 103, 103, 104

 

NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA),

pelvis

emergencies, 245–7, 246

 

305, 306

anatomy, 186–8, 186–8, 189

risk factors, 103

 

nifedipine, 97, 124, 139, 250

android, 211

placental abruption (abruptio placentae),

 

nipples, 268

examination, 10–11

103, 103, 104, 120, 128–9

 

nitrazine testing, 137

female, 190

aetiology, 128

 

nitrous oxide (NO), 204

pemphigoid gestationis (PG), 167

antenatal, 93

 

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory

penicillin, 151, 171, 179

clinical presentation, 129

 

drugs, 162

peptic ulcer disease, 158–9

definition, 128

 

nuchal lucency, 79–80, 83

peptides, 33

diagnosis, 129

 

nuchal translucency, 114–15

perinatal death, 270, 270

effects of, 129

 

 

perinatal mortality

emergencies, 247

 

obstetric palsy, 261

placental abruption, 129

incidence, 128

 

odours, sensitivity to, 24–5

twins, 111–12

management, 129

 

oedema, extremities, 11, 87

perineum

risk factors, 129

 

oestrogens, 31

anatomy, 188, 189

placental clock theory, 34

 

oligohydramnios, 9, 66, 94

infections, 259

placental disorders, key points, 129

 

omega-3 fatty acids, 35–6

repair, 226–7, 226

placental mosaicism, 78

 

operative intervention, 224–40

trauma, 225–6

plasma

 

assisted delivery, 228

periods, regularity of, 4

oncotic pressure, 21

 

case history, 239–40

periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), 299

osmolality, 21

 

instrument types, 230–4, 231, 232

persistent pulmonary hypertension

plasminogen conversion, 22

 

overview, 224

(PPHN), 297–8

Plasmodium falciparum, 175

 

prerequisites for instrumental

pethidine, 204

Plasmodium malariae, 175

 

delivery, 229

phaeochromocytoma, 166

Plasmodium ovale, 175

 

opiates, 93, 204

phenobarbitone, 148

Plasmodium vivax, 175

 

opioids, 93

phenylketonuria, 291

platelet count, 22

 

Oracle Study, 139

phenytoin, 148

platelets

 

oral changes, 28

phosphatidylcholine, 41

reference values, 23

 

Ortolani-Barlow tests, 290

physiological changes, 20–37

see also thrombocytopenia

 

ovarian cysts, 88

blood, 22–4

pneumonia

 

ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, 5

cardiovascular system, 26–8

aspiration pneumonia, 262

 

oxygen consumption, 26

early pregnancy, 20–1

preterm labour, 134–5

 

oxygenation, 25–6

endocrinology, 32–4

viral/bacterial, 151

 

oxytocin, 32, 249, 258, 266

gastrointestinal changes, 29–30

warning signs, 151

 

in labour, 208, 209, 211, 212, 221

kidneys, 29–30

polycystic ovarian syndrome, 4

 

 

maternal brain, 24

polyhydramnios, 9, 66, 94, 164

 

palsy, 261, 296, 299

metabolism, 34–6

causes, 94–5

 

pancreas, 42

overview, 20

multiple pregnancies, 113

 

pancreatitis, 159

reproductive organ, 30–2

polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 172

 

papilloedema, 11

respiratory tract, 25–6

polymorphic eruption of pregnancy

 

parametritis, puerperal, 264

senses, 24–5

(PEP), 167

 

parasitaemia, 171

skin, 36

port wine stains, 288

 

parathyroid disease, 165–6

summary, 37

post-mortems, 270

 

parathyroid hormone (PTH), 165

urinary tract, 29–30

post-natal depressive disorder/illness

 

parathyroidectomy, 165

volume homeostasis, 21

adverse sequelae, 280

 

parentcraft, 52

pituitary gland, 32–3

risk factors, 279

 

parity, 4

pituitary tumours, 166

symptoms, 279

 

paroxetine, 277

placenta, 33

postpartum affective disorders,

 

partograms, 199, 200, 211, 211

abnormal placentation, 121

pathophysiology, 280

 

parvovirus, 174–5

disorders, 120–31

postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), 247–9

 

Patau’s syndrome, 39

localization, 65

causes, 248

 

 

 

 

 

 

Index

317

definition, 247

high-risk asymptomatic women,

psychosis

 

diagnosis, 248

140–2

postpartum, risk factors, 278

 

key points, 249

key points, 142

puerperal, 278

 

management, 248–9, 249

new developments, 142

psychotropic medications, 277

 

primary/secondary, 247

origin of, 132

puerperal fever, 262

 

risk factors, 248

prevalence, 132–4

puerperium, 258–80

 

secondary, 261

worries after, 133–4

breasts, 265–9

 

potassium, 30

preterm delivery, twins, 111

case history, 271

 

reference values, 23

preterm labour (PTL)

contraception, 269

 

Potter’s syndrome, 43

clinical features, 135–6

disorders, 259–62

 

pre-eclampsia, 121–5, 166

differential diagnosis, 136

genital infections, 264

 

aetiology, 122–3

examination, 136

infection, risk factors, 264

 

case history, 130

fetal assessment, 140

key points, 271

 

clinical presentation, 123

investigations, 136

overview, 258

 

definition, 121–2

multiple pregnancies, 115–16

parametritis, 264

 

differentiation from systemic lupus

spontaneous, 132, 132

pelvic floor exercises, 269

 

erythematosus (SLE), 161

symptomatic women, 138–40

pelvic infection, 264

 

emergencies, 249–51

vaginal examination, 136

perinatal death, 270, 270

 

epidemiology, 122

preterm pre-labour rupture of the

physiological changes, 258–62

 

history taking, 4, 11

membranes (PPROM), 132,

postnatal examination, 270

 

incidence, 122

132, 262

psychiatric disorders, 272–80

 

investigations for, 124

clinical features, 137

pyrexia, 262–5, 263

 

management, 124, 125

differential diagnosis, 137

sepsis, 262, 264, 265

 

overview, 120

examination, 137

spread of infection, 264

 

pathophysiology, 122–3

history, 137

pulmonary embolism, emergencies,

 

prevention, 125

investigations, 137–8

252–3

 

risk factors, 122, 156

risk factors, 135

pulmonary embolus (PE), 91

 

screening, 57–8, 58, 125

symptomatic women, 138–40

pulmonary hypertension (PH), 154–5

 

superimposed, risk factors, 156

primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), 160

classification, 155

 

symptoms and signs, 250

primary dysfunctional labour, 212

pulmonary hypoplasia, fetal, 41

 

treatment, 124

procoagulant factors, 22

pyelonephritis, 88, 89

 

prednisolone, 158, 159

professional bodies, involvement in

preterm labour, 134–5

 

pregnancy

maternity care, 15–16

pyrexia, puerperal, 262–5, 263

 

confirmation of, 52

progesterone, 141

 

 

dating, 53

prolactin, 31, 32–3, 266

quadruplets, 118

 

expected date of delivery (EDD), 53

propylthiouracil (PTU), 165

 

 

see also multiple pregnancies;

prostaglandins, 139, 221

reassurance, 49–52

 

twin pregnancies

proteinuria, 7

red cell destruction, fetal, 106

 

prelabour rupture of membranes

maternal, 72

relaxation, 204

 

(PROM), 220

testing for, 124

renal disease, 156–8

 

premature infants, 45

Proteus, 89

pre-pregnancy counselling, 156–7

 

case history, 45–6

prurigo of pregnancy, 167

renal failure, placental abruption, 129

 

prematurity, main problems of, 299

pruritic folliculitis, 167

renal plasma flow (RPF), 29

 

prenatal diagnosis, 75–84

pruritus, 36

renal transplants, 158

 

classification, 75–6

Pseudomonas, 89

respiratory disease, 149–51

 

definition, 75

psychiatric disorders, 272–80

respiratory distress syndrome (RDS),

 

invasive, 76–9

antenatal, 278

41, 47, 281, 297, 298–9, 299

 

key points, 83

case histories, 274–5, 276, 277

neonatal, 138

 

new developments, 84

key points, 280

respiratory system

 

non-invasive, 75, 76

management of pre-existing, 274–7

fetal, 41

 

overview, 75

maternal mortality, 272–3

premature infants, 45

 

pre-test counselling, 76–7

new-onset, 277–80

respiratory tract, 25–6

 

reasons for, 75

normal emotional and psychological

restitution, 194

 

preterm births

changes, 273

resuscitation, 244–5

 

aetiology, 134

overview, 272

neonatal, 283–4, 283, 284–6

 

classification, 134

post-natal, 278

Resuscitation Council, 285

 

definition, 132

psychiatric problems, antenatal, 60

retroversion of the uterus, 88

 

 

 

 

 

318

Index

 

 

 

Rhesus disease

Short Report, 14

syphilis, 170–1, 170

 

aetiology, 104–5

shoulder dystocia, 254–6, 255

in antenatal care, 56

 

key points, 108

risk factors, 255

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),

 

management in sensitized woman,

sickle-cell anaemia, 144–5

161–2

 

107–8

sickle-cell disease, neonatal, 291

classification criteria, 161

 

prevalence, 105

sickle-cell disease (SCD), 144–5

differentiation from pre-eclampsia,

 

sensitizing events, 105

in antenatal care, 56

161

 

severity assessment, 71

sight, 25

 

 

Rhesus iso-immunization, 104–5

Simpson forceps, 232, 232

tachycardia, fetal, 213, 213

 

prevention, 105–6

skin

tacrolimus, 158

 

Rhesus sensitization, 106

disease, 167

telogen effluvium, 36

 

rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 162

fetal, 43–4, 45

teratogenicity, 277

 

ribavirin, 183

maternal, 36

term, definition, 132

 

risk, identification, 6

premature infants, 46

Term Breech Trial, 98

 

risk management, clinical (CRM),

skin tags, 288

tetracyclines, 179

 

223

small for gestational age (SGA),

thalassaemia, 44, 145

 

ritodrine, 138–9

case history, 73

in antenatal care, 56

 

rotation, in labour, 193, 194

smoking, 3

prenatal diagnosis, 76

 

Royal College of Obstetricians and

antenatal care, 52

theophylline, 150

 

Gynaecologists (RCOG), 15–16,

antenatal complications, 93, 94

thirst threshold, 21

 

293

fetal growth restriction, 126, 128

thrombocytopenia, 145–6

 

rubella, 169–70

social history, history taking, 2–3, 12

autoimmune, 146

 

in antenatal care, 56

sodium, 21, 30

thromboembolic disease, risk factors, 90

 

 

reference values, 23

thromboembolism, 262

 

Sabin-Feldman dye test, 172

sodium valproate, 148

venous, 16

 

sacral pits, 288–9

special educational needs (SEN), 298

thrombophilia, 90

 

salmetrerol, 150

speculum examination, 10

thromboprophylaxis risk assessment

 

sarcoidosis, 150–1

spina bifida, 303

and management

 

schizophrenia, 275–6

screening, 57

antenatal, 92

 

scleroderma, 162

spinal anaesthesia, 207

postnatal, 92

 

screening

spiramycin, 172

thyroid disease, 164–5

 

antenatal, 57–8

Staphylococcus aureus, 268

thyroid function, 33

 

chlamydia, 57

steroids, 148, 162

thyroid storm, 165

 

diabetes, 57

maternal, 138

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 33

 

Down’s syndrome, 57, 79

systemic lupus erythematosus, 162

reference values, 23

 

fetal abnormalities, 57, 114–15

Stillbirth and Neonatal Death Society

thyrotrophin-releasing hormone

 

neonatal, 289–92, 294–5

(SANDS), 270

(TRH), 33

 

pre-eclampsia, 57–8, 58, 125

stockings, elastic, 91

tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), 22

 

prenatal diagnosis, 75–84

streptococci, 89

tocolytics, 115–16

 

see also ultrasound

streptococcus, Group B (GBS), 141

external cephalic version, 97

 

sebaceous glands, 36

Streptococcus agalactiae, 178

miscarriage, 138–9

 

secondary postpartum haemorrhage

Streptococcus viridans, 268

Toxoplasma gondii, 171, 172

 

(PPH), 261

stretch marks, 36

toxoplasmosis, 171–2

 

seizures, causes, 148

striae gravidarum, 36

tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF),

 

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Sturge-Weber syndrome, 288

fetal, 42, 42

 

(SSRIs), 277, 278, 279

substance abuse, 93–4, 273

traction plane, 231, 231

 

self-examination, 7

suckling, 31, 32

transcutaneous electrical nerve

 

senses, 24–5

suicides, 272–3

stimulation (TENS), 204

 

severe acute respiratory syndrome

sulphasalazine, 162

transient neonatal pustular

 

(SARS), 151

sulphonamides, 262

melanosis, 288

 

sex steroid hormones, 33

surfactant, 41, 47

transient tachypnoea of the newborn

 

sexing fetus, 84

sutures, 142, 142

(TTN), 297, 297

 

shingles, 174

symphysiotomy, 261–2

traumatic neuritis, 261

 

shock

symphysis pubis diastasis, 261–2

Treponema pallidum, 170, 171

 

endotoxic, 265

symphysis pubis dysfunction, 85

Trichomonas vaginalis, 141

 

septic, 265

symphysis-fundal height (SFH), 8, 8, 9

tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), 275,

 

septicaemic, 265

Syntometrine, 249

277, 279

 

 

 

 

 

 

Index

319

triglycerides, reference values, 23

biophysical profiles (BPPs), 69–70, 69

over-distension, 134

 

triplets, 109, 118–19

case history, 73–4

retroversion of, 88

 

trisomies, 113, 114

cervical, 141

rupture, 217

 

Edward’s syndrome, 39

clinical applications, 62–6

scars, 217

 

Patau’s syndrome, 39

compression ultrasound, 91

 

 

see also Down’s syndrome

diagnostic, 61–2

VACTERL, 42

 

twin pregnancies

early pregnancy scan, 72

vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC),

 

amniocentesis, 114

fetal well-being, 66–73

217

 

case history, 119

guiding invasive procedures, 72

vaginal examination, 136, 196–7

 

chromosomal defects, 113

multiple pregnancies, 115

valproate, 277

 

complications, 111–13, 112

as new intervention, 13

varicella zoster immunoglobulin

 

death of one fetus, 112

overview, 61

(VZIG), 173, 174

 

delivery requirements, 118

pregnancy dating by, 2, 53

varicella zoster virus (VZV), 173

 

incidence, 109

in prenatal diagnosis, 76

varicose veins, 86–7

 

intrapartum management, 116–18

preterm pre-labour rupture of the

vasa praevia, 103–4

 

maternal physiology, 111

membranes, 137

venography, 91

 

physiology, 111

probes, 61, 62

venous thromboembolism (VTE),

 

postpartum haemorrhage, 118

puerperium, 261

16, 90–3

 

prevalence, 109

scanning, 2, 49

diagnosis, 91

 

ultrasound identification of, 64–5,

scanning schedule in clinical

key points, 93

 

65

practice, 66

prevention of, 91, 92

 

see also multiple pregnancies

third trimester, 73

treatment, 91

 

twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

transvaginal, 61–2

ventilation, 25

 

(TTTS), 65, 71, 95, 113–14, 115

20 week scan, 72–3

ventouse delivery, 228, 228–9,

 

twins

see also Doppler ultrasound

230–2, 231

 

conjoined (Siamese), 111

umbilical artery, Doppler investigation,

viability, diagnosis and

 

delivery, 116–18

70–2, 70–1

confirmation in early

 

dichorionic, 110, 112–13, 114, 115

umbilical cord accidents, emergencies,

pregnancy, 62–3, 62

 

dizygotic, 110, 110, 113

253–4

violence, domestic, 3

 

fetal abnormalities, 113

under-nutrition, maternal, 126

viral hepatitis, 159–60, 160

 

fetal growth restriction, 112

urate, 29, 30

viral serology, 75

 

fraternal, 110

urea, 29

vitamin K deficiency bleeding

 

identical, 110

reference values, 23

(VKDB), 292

 

monoamniotic, 110, 114

ureaplasm, 141

volume homeostasis, physiological

 

monochorionic, 110, 112–14, 115

uric acid, reference values, 23

changes, 21

 

monozygotic, 110, 110–11, 110, 113

urinalysis, in antenatal care, 56

von Willebrand disease, 146–7

 

non-identical, 110

urinary examination, 7

von Willebrand factor (VWF),

 

perinatal mortality, 111–12

urinary tract, 29–30

22, 147

 

preterm, 118

fetal, 43

 

 

see also multiple pregnancies; twin

infections (UTIs), 88–9

warfarin, 91, 152

 

pregnancies

uterine anomalies, congenital, 88

weight

 

Twins and Multiple Birth Association

uterine atony, 248

fetal, 38–9

 

(TAMBA), 116

uterine inversion, 252, 252

maternal, 6, 34–5

 

 

uterine rupture, 251–2

white cell count, reference

 

ulcerative colitis, 159

risk factors, 251

values, 23

 

ultrasound, 12

uterus, 30–1, 31, 33

World Health Organization

 

aims, 72–3

abnormal cavity, 135

(WHO), 295, 295

 

assessment of fetal well-being, 66,

dysfunctional activity, 208–9

 

 

66–72

involution, 258–9

zidovudine, 181

 

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]