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Storytelling

RAGS TO RICHES, RICHES TO RAGS

FIRST THOUGHTS

Many fairy tales or traditional stories are to do with poor people suddenly becoming rich. Can you think of any tales like this in your culture?

READING

Quickly read the story of Dick Whittington and put the pictures in the right order.

Then answer the questions by choosing А, В, С or D

1 Why did Dick go to London?

ABecause his parents were dead.

ВIt was a long way away.

СProspects seemed better.

D He wanted to experience city life.

2What did Dick discover when he tried to find work? A There were plenty of jobs available.

В Things were no better in London.

С Market stalls were best.

D People were interested in what he had to say.

3Why did Mr Fitzwarren offer Dick a job? A It was a response to Dick's story.

В An apprentice had just left.

С Dick had managed to take him in. D He recognised Dick's great potential.

4What was his life like at Mr Fitzwarren's house when he first arrived?

A Comfortable.

В Completely awful.

С A mixture of good and bad.

D Better than he'd known before.

5 Dick decided to leave London because

AAlice didn't return the love he felt for her.

Вhe was unpopular with the other servants.

Сof a number of reasons.

D he had been dismissed.

6What happened after he had heard the bells? A He and the cook became friends.

ВНе was welcomed home.

СНе returned to the house.

D He decided to get his cat back.

7When the ship returned, Dick A gave up his job.

В had already become wealthy.

С felt ashamed of his past. D achieved his dreams.

nce upon a time there was a poor orphan Ocalled Dick Whittington. The boy had

heard stories about the great city of London where the streets were paved with gold. Although London was a long way from his tiny village, this didn't put him off making a bundle of his few possessions and setting off to seek his fortune.

Once Dick had arrived, he soon realised that work and money were no easier to come by than in the country He stopped at every shop and market stall to ask for work but the answer was always no. Each time he was turned down, his bundle seemed to grow a little heavier. By nightfall, he had grown tired and hungry and was desperate for somewhere to rest. While he was wandering through the streets, he saw a doorway of a fine house which looked like a good place to take shelter. Using his precious bundle as a pillow, he settled down and quickly fell asleep. The owner of the house was a rich merchant called Mr Fitzwarren who came across Dick on his return home. Luckily for Dick, he was a kindhearted gentleman. He felt sorry for the lad and decided to take him in. He made sure he was fed and, on hearing Dick's tale, offered him a job as an apprentice.

The boy was given a place to sleep in the attic but was greatly disturbed by the rats and mice that lived there too. So, with his last penny, Dick bought

a cat which soon chased the rats and mice away. It became his greatest friend.

Dick was deeply grateful towards his master and became a trusted member of his household. The boy fell for his lovely daughter, Alice, but Dick believed that he would never be rich or worthy enough to win her hand in marriage. Dick got on well with nearly everybody except for the cook, who made his life a misery and told him off for the slightest thing.

Time passed, until one day his master called all the servants together. He solemnly told them he was going to send a ship off on a long trading voyage. He then asked whether anyone had anything they wished to send on the voyage which could be sold or bartered. Young Dick thought about this a lot and eventually, after much heart searching, decided to send his beloved cat.

Afterwards, he felt sad and lonely and the cook's treatment of him became more and more cruel. Alice seemed more and more unobtainable. Finally he couldn't put up with his situation any longer and decided to run away. With a heavy heart, he prepared his bundle and crept out of the house before anyone was awake. As he reached the green fields which marked the edge of the city, he heard the bells of a nearby church which seemed to be telling him to turn back from his journey. What's more, the bells told him that he would become Lord Mayor of London, not just once but three times. He decided to obey their message

Storytelling

and returned home before anyone had noticed he was missing.

In the meantime, Mr Fitzwarren's ship had arrived in a port of a strange country where no European had ever been before. The captain was invited to the royal palace for a feast in his honour When he got there, the king greeted him and he was taken to a dining room where there was a magnificent meal waiting. Yet, the moment they sat down to eat, hundreds of rats rushed in and ate the food in front of their eyes. The royal host was embarrassed and apologised to his guest, who told him that what he needed was a cat. The good man had no idea what a cat was, so the sailor ordered Dick's pet to be sent ashore. It was the first time anyone had ever seen one and the king himself was even a little afraid of the creature. However, as soon as he saw how it dealt with the rats, he was delighted. Within a couple of days, the entire palace had been cleared of them. The king was so pleased that he gave the captain gold and silver in return for the cat.

Finally, on the ship's return to England, the captain handed over the money and jewels he had received and Dick became extremely rich. He continued to work for Mr Fitzwarren and he eventually married Alice. His fortune grew and, as the bells had promised, he became Lord Mayor of London. He never forgot what it had been like to be poor, and he became famous for the good work he did to help the less fortunate and orphans.

Storytelling

WRITING

Understanding style

1 Study this extract from the text and work out what the words in bold refer to. How does the writer avoid repeating the words captain, cat, king and palace too often?

... ever been before. The captain was invited to the royal palace for a feast in his honour. When he got there, the king greeted him and he was taken to a dining room where there was a magnificent meal waiting. Yet, the moment they sat down to eat, hundreds of rats rushed in and ate the food in front of their eyes. The royal host was embarrassed and apologised to his guest who told him that what he needed was a cat. The good man had no idea what a cat was, so the sailor ordered Dick's pet to be sent ashore. It was the first time anyone had ever seen one and the king himself was even a little afraid of the creature.

2i Read the following story and rewrite it so that you don't repeat the words princess, pond, frog and witch too often.

THE PRINCESS SAW A FROG. The frog was in a pond. The pond was near a castle. The frog spoke to the princess. The princess was

surprised. The princess went to the pond every day to talk to the frog. The princess fell in love with the frog. One day the frog asked the princess for a kiss. The princess gave the frog a kiss. The frog turned into a handsome prince. A witch had cast a spell on the prince. The witch had taken

the prince's castle. The witch lived in the castle. The prince went to the castle. The prince killed

the witch. The princess married the prince. The princess and the prince lived happily ever after.

VOCABULARY

Time expressions

Complete these sentences using one of the time expressions or words in the box.

1

The phone rang

he was in the bath.

 

2

Mary fell very ill and died suddenly

the

 

night.

 

 

 

 

3

Everybody got up and left

of the film.

4

We queued for the tickets

two hours.

5

She told us she had

lived in Paris.

 

6

The bus

 

arrived half an hour late.

 

7

 

I decide to play tennis it always seems to

 

rain.

 

 

 

 

8

The plane's arriving in half an hour.

let's

 

have a cup of tea.

 

 

9

She insisted on staying

the concert ended,

 

even though it was awful.

 

 

10

We can go to the park and

we can visit

 

Lucy.

 

 

 

 

11

We couldn't get a taxi and we had decided to

 

walk, but

someone gave us a lift.

 

12

Just

leaving work, he phoned home to say

 

he'd be late.

 

 

 

whenever before while until during

 

afterwards

at the end for

eventually

 

in the meantime

in the end

previously

 

Phrasal verbs

1 Match the phrasal verbs with their definitions.

A

put up with

1

find by chance

В

take in

2

stop/discourage from doing

 

 

 

something

С

find out

3

criticise

D

look after

4

discover information/facts

E

setoff

5

have a (good) relationship with

 

 

 

someone

F

turn down

6

give hospitality/shelter

G

tell off

7

endure/tolerate

H

fall for

8

take care of

I

come across

9

refuse/reject

J

get on with

10

fall in love with/be attracted to

 

 

 

someone

К

turn up

11

leave on a journey

L

put off

12

arrive

52

Storytelling

2 Complete each sentence with one of the twelve phrasal verbs. Remember to use the correct form.

1

They went to the bus station to

the time of the next bus to Edinburgh.

2

They

their grandmother's old school books while they were clearing out the

 

attic.

 

 

 

 

3

The teacher was angry and

the pupils

 

for not doing their homework.

4

A farmer

the travellers

during the snow storm and gave them a bed

 

for the night.

 

 

 

 

5

She did not

her new boss so she found another job.

6

Please could you make less noise. It's

me

my work.

7

While she was studying in England she

her landlady's son and they later got

 

married.

 

 

 

 

8

I can't

your childish behaviour any longer. I'm leaving.

9

He was

for the job because of his dirty appearance and long hair.

10

A baby-sitter

the kids while they went to the cinema.

11

They finally

at the party at twelve o'clock just as everybody else was leaving.

12

After she had finished loading the car, she

 

on her holiday.

3 Choose the four phrasal verbs that you find most difficult and write a sentence for each that clearly shows the meaning of the verb. Use a dictionary to help you if you like.

LANGUAGE STUDY 1 Transitive and intransitive verbs

Our intuition often tells us all we need to know about the grammar of phrasal verbs. However, it is useful to know the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs to understand better how phrasal verbs work.

1 Transitive verbs

We can sav

But we can't say Anne likes.

Like is a transitive verb. In other words, it must be followed by an object. Without an object it does not make sense. In the Longman Active Study Dictionary transitive verbs are shown like this: [T].

Intransitive verbs

We can say

We can't say The sun rose the sky.

This is because rise does not take an object. It is intransitive. In the Longman Active Study Dictionary intransitive verbs are shown like this: [I].

3 Using your dictionary, find out if these verbs are transitive or intransitive or both: rise, raise, thank, understand, go, see, open, laugh, arrive.

2Exploring the grammar of phrasal verbs

1With a partner, look at these groups of sentences and quickly decide if they are correct. Use your intuition in English!

A turn up

a

She turned up.

C look after

a

She looked after.

 

b She turned up him.

 

b

She looked after him.

 

c

She turns up late for

 

c

She looked him after.

 

 

everything.

 

d

She looked after Bill.

B tell off

a

She told off.

 

e

She looked Bill after.

 

b

She told off Dick.

D get on with

a

She gets on with.

 

c

She told Dick off.

 

b

She gets on her with.

 

d

She told off him.

 

c

She gets on with her.

 

e

She told him off.

 

d

She gets on with Ann.

2 In pairs or small groups work out the four types of phrasal verbs. Decide:

• whether each verb is transitive or intransitive.

where we can put the object if it is transitive.

what happens to the object if it is a pronoun.

3 Look at the dictionary entry for turn up. How many different meanings does it give? Is the grammar of turn up always the same?

Note The most important thing you have to discover when you meet a new phrasal verb is whether it is possible to separate the verb and the particle.

Listen to the story of Alexandre Aufredi and decide if the following statements are true (T), false (F) or not stated (NS).

1 Aufredi was a satisfied man.

2He had made his money from the spice trade.

3His friends advised him against the venture.

4His steward took money to buy goods.

5Aufredi's problems started immediately.

6There were unpleasant stories about his ships.

7His ships returned after seven years.

8Everybody in La Rochelle knew where the Aufredis were.

9Aufredi's children suffered a great deal.

10Aufredi became friends again with his old business associates.

11The good work he began continues to this day.

Storytelling

1Turn to the tapescript on p.222-223 and list all the words and expressions which

put events in order.

• use a form or expression based around first or last.

2 Study these sentences. Which word or expression in bold is used for instructions, which for reasons and which for first impressions?

a At first I didn't think I was going to enjoy the film but surprisingly I did.

bI don't like horror stories for the following reasons: firstly they give me nightmares, secondly they're stupid...

сOK now, are you ready? First of all, lift the bow with your left hand and draw the string back, then...

3 Now look at these sentences. Which word or expression in bold is used • to introduce a last point, • to suggest that something happened after a lot of other actions, • to describe the finish of an event, • to suggest that something happened after a long time?

a We looked everywhere. In the end we found the book in the boot of the car.

bIt was an extremely moving play; at the end everyone applauded the actors.

сFinally, I would like to thank everybody for continuing to support the history society. d The injured mountaineers were losing hope but at last they heard the sound of the

helicopter.

4 Complete these two situations using one of the forms given.

1At first/ First of all, hold the racquet and ball together. Then/After throw the ball, bringing the racquet behind your head. After/Afterwards, throw the racquet and your body forward. After/Afterwards hitting the ball, follow through. In the

end/Finally, prepare yourself for the return

2Last month I went to my first football match. At first/First of all, I thought I wasn't going to like it. However, after/afterwards ten minutes I started to enjoy it. The other team scored first/firstly but after/afterwards we scored twice. Unfortunately, after/afterwards we had scored, our best player was injured and in the end/finally we lost.

ОIn pairs or small groups

list reasons either for or against allowing children to watch TV.

give instructions to a foreigner about how to make tea or coffee or dance a traditional dance!

describe a journey where everything went wrong.

talk about a situation where you had to revise your first impressions. Begin: At first I thought...

Storytelling

TALL TALES

FIRST THOUGHTS

In England, a favourite excuse when your

teacher asks for your homework is to say: "I did do it, but the dog ate it", or " My young brother threw it away." Can you think of any other ridiculous excuses?

LISTENING

A tall story

1 Working in pairs or small groups, try to make the connection between a dead cat, a department store and a thief! Then listen to the story and see if it is similar to the one you invented.

2 Listen to the story again and answer these questions by choosing А, В or С.

1 From what Arthur says we understand that

ACarol seldom tells stories.

ВCarol has a reputation as a storyteller.

СCarol knows a lot of jokes.

2The cat

A was in the street.

Вwas asleep under the car.

Сwas near the garage.

3Why doesn't the woman in Carol's story put the cat in the dustbin?

A The children could find it.

ВShe wants to bury it properly.

СIt's against the law.

4The woman takes the bag to the department store because

A she thinks her friend can help.

Вshe picked it up by mistake.

Сshe intends to leave it there.

5The middle-aged woman A was a customer.

Вhad a horrible shock.

Сwas trying to escape from the store.

WRITING

The narrative composition

1 In the writing paper there is nearly always a question which asks you to tell a story in the past. To answer this question well, you should

1 make sure your composition is relevant, i.e. answer the question!

2show a good command of past tenses.

3show that you can link sentences and ideas well.

4use a good range of vocabulary.

5write in a well organised and logical fashion.

6keep within the word limit set by the exam.

7be accurate.

2 Here is an example answer to the exam task. "Write a story ending with the words We never saw him again."

Find out

1how many past tenses the writer uses.

2the ways in which the writer puts events in order.

3how the young man and weather are described.

4 if the writer uses a good range of vocabulary.

When we arrived in London, we were two hours late because our train had been held up by the bad weather. Outside the station it was snowing hard and there was a long queue of people waiting for taxis. As we were about to join It, a young man pulled up In his car and aeked us where we wanted to go. Although it was not an official taxi, the car wae new and shiny and the young man looked clean and reepectable; so we decided to accept his offer. When we told him that we did not have a hotel, he said he could take us to one which wae clean and cheap,

He put our luggage in the boot and we drove off to the hotel. On the way, we chatted and he pointed out any Interesting sights. We could hardly believe our luck and thought of all the people we had left queuing in the freezing cold. When we got to the hotel, he told us that he would wait while we checked in. After we had found out that the hotel was full, we went down the steps only to find that our driver had disappeared with our luggage. Needless to say we never saw him again.

Storytelling

WRITING

The sixteen pictures make up two stories in the past. Work in groups and decide which

 

pictures belong to which story. Afterwards put them in the right order. Try to use the

 

tenses and ways of linking ideas we have covered in this unit. Then choose the story you

 

liked best and write a composition in 120 -180 words telling the story.

ACCENT AND CLASS

In your country, how easy is it to say where somebody comes from and what their social position is from their accent or dialect?

"Cockney" is a dialect spoken by working class people in London. Speakers of standard English often believe users of Cockney are ignorant and vulgar. How easy do you think it would be for a speaker of Cockney to find a good job?

1

Read the summary of the play Pygmalion and answer the questions.

1

Who is Eliza Doolittle and what is her ambition?

2

How does she think Professor Higgins can help her?

3

What sort of man is Higgins? Why does he decide to take Eliza on?

4

How does Eliza change in the course of the play?

2i

Complete the text by changing the words in capitals into the correct form.

Pygmalion

 

Pygmalion, by George Bernard Shaw, describes the (1)

of a

Cockney flower girl called Eliza Doolittle into someone who could pass for a duchess. The person who does this is Professor Henry Higgins, a phonetician who is able to place exactly where someone

was born and their position in society by their (2)

His gifts as

a phonetician are matched by his (3)

as a person.

The play opens in Covent Garden in London where Higgins is

noting down accents. There he forms a (4)

 

with a fellow

linguist, Dr Pickering, and the pair meet Eliza, a simple flower seller. The men forget all about her. However, the unfortunate Eliza is (5)

of her accent and her (6) English which prevent her from getting a job in a proper flower shop. The following day, she goes to Higgins' house to seek his help. Higgins (7) says Eliza's English will keep her in the gutter all her life. Pickering bets Higgins that he could not pass her off as a duchess in six months and the professor finds the challenge (8)

Higgins teaches her to speak standard English, and - with the help of Pickering and Mrs Pearce his housekeeper - trains her in

manners and (9)

introduces her to good society. During this

process she emerges as a young woman of (10)

and sensitivity.

She fights against Higgins' (11)

of her and against his

(12)rudeness. Pickering is always a gentleman, kind and

courteous, but Higgins (13)

regards Eliza merely as an

 

experiment proving his genius. Yet Eliza achieves her (14)

and

a sense of her worth. The play has had (15)

versions. The most

famous, the (16)

comedy My Fair Lady, has a different ending:

Higgins and Eliza come together at the end of the film.

 

You may be (17)

to know that the play gets its title from the

(18)

legend in which Pygmalion, king of Cyprus, falls in love

with his own sculpture. The goddess Aphrodite turns it into flesh and blood as the woman Galatea.

TRANSFORM

PRONOUNCE ARROGANT

FRIEND

SHAME GRAMMAR

RUDE

RESIST

SUCCEED BEAUTIFUL TREAT TOLERATE SHAME FREE

VARY

MUSIC

INTEREST CLASSIC

LISTENING

Listen to this extract from Pygmalion and answer these questions by choosing А, В or С.

1 When Mrs Pearce tells Higgins about the visitor it is clear

Athat she disapproves of her.

Вthat she is unused to having strange people in the house.

Сthat she is sure Higgins' will want to see her.

2How does Higgins feel when Mrs Pearce tells him about the visitor?

A Angry

ВBored

СInterested

3What does Higgins want to do once he recognises the visitor?

A Send her away.

ВRecord her.

СFind out the reason for her visit.

4What does Eliza think about her money? A It is a pity to waste it on taxis.

В

That Higgins will want to earn some of it.

С

Higgins will want to teach her for nothing.

5What does Eliza think when Higgins calls her a baggage?

A She is a lady.

В Her treatment has been unfair. С She'll never find a job in a shop.

Storytelling

USE OF ENGLISH

Read the review of a production of Pygmalion

and tick (•) those lines which are correct. Where a line has an extra word which should not be there, identify the word and write it down.

0The new Theatre Club production is Pygmalion /

00at the Maida Theatre. I was enjoyed it very much.

1It is a most amusing and I would certainly

2recommend it you for an amusing evening's

3entertainment. It was an evening filled with the

4laughter. It was a very superb production.

5Angela Brown was a marvellous in the role of

6Eliza, and yet Bruce Perkins was a superb

7Higgins. Percy Evans ought to be congratulated

8too for the scenery, which had looked magnificent.

9Afterwards, several of people said they had

10been preferred the happier ending of the film

11version My Fair Lady but me personally I prefer

12the bitter-sweet original. I am agree that

13this ending is more faithful to Shaw's intentions.

14It filled me with enthusiasm feelings for his work.

15Tickets are available from the box office.

WRITING

You have been asked to write a review of a film

or play you have seen for a students' magazine. Using the summary of Pygmalion and the edited text above as a guide, write a review in 120 - 180 words. Think about these areas:

The name of the play/film and the author/director. The kind of play/film it is and where it is set.

The plot.

How good the actors/direction/scenery are. What other people thought about it.

Whether you would recommend it to other people.

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