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Beyond Belie/


FIRST THOUGHTS Young children often have imaginary friends. Why do you think this happens? What qualities would you want an imaginary friend to have?


1 Doris Stokes was a famous medium. She claimed she was able to contact the spirits of


the dead. Read her story quickly and find out

1 how she felt about her imaginary friends.

2how her imaginary friends helped her.

3when she had her first psychic experience.

Imaginary friends

by Doris Stokes

'My mother warned me that Yd end up in a mental hospital.'

We have all heard of children who have imaginary playmates. I

get lots of letters from parents about them and I always say the same thing: don't say there is no one there. What you are putting down to imagination could be a spirit child.

One dad wrote to me to say he was getting very worried about his child. He told me his son had an imaginary friend called Robbie, and was forever saying things like, " Don't set off yet, Robbie's not in the car."

I told him, "Your child can actually see that boy, love. Don't say anything. He'll either grow out of it and go on to more worldly things or he'll develop into a very good medium."

I was about six or seven when I first saw the spirit children. I'd had rheumatic fever and had to be in a pushchair. I don't know how, but I knew that other people could not see Christopher and Pansy. I saw them a lot. And you know, I never could do maths - it was a mystery to me - but Christopher and Pansy helped me pass my exams!

So there's nothing frightening about children having imaginary

friends, especially if they've been very close. I remember one little lad telling his mum, "You don't have to turn off the light tonight. Grandma will do it."

His mum watched him go upstairs on his own that night and the lights went off! It scares the life out of some parents. But you just have to accept that his grandma loved him very much. She'd always tucked him in. It was a routine.

Most children are psychic up to the age of 11 or 12. My first psychic experience happened when I was four. I woke up to a commotion outside in the street.

There was a fire in the house nearby, and all the neighbours were crying. They kept saying "Poor Tom, what a terrible way to die." As I peered from between their legs, I saw a stretcher with little Tom on it, and Tom was also walking beside it. I told my dad I'd seen Tom and he said, "If you did, love, then you did." You see, I'd seen Tom's spirit walking beside him.

My mother warned me that I'd end up in a mental hospital. I did. Nearly 40 years later I was a nurse in one!

2 Choose the best answer (А, В, С or D) to these questions.

1 What does Doris say about imaginary playmates?

AThey are commonplace.

ВThey are definitely imaginary.

СThey write letters.

D There is no such thing.

2What is her advice to the father who wrote? A Tell your son Robbie doesn't exist.

В Your son is a good storyteller.

С It could be a stage he is going through. D Make a special place for Robbie.

3What was special about Doris's contact with Pansy and Christopher?

A She only met them a few times.

ВShe had been ill.

СThey ran and played together.

D They helped her with her schoolwork.

4Children who have psychic experiences A are generally frightened by them. В often see friends.

С either see friends or grandparents. D always see someone who's been close.

5What did the mother think when the light went out?

A This is scary.

ВGrandmother always does it.

СHe's being naughty.

D There's nothing to worry about.

6What does Doris claim about the psychic powers of children?

A Children over 12 aren't psychic.

ВChildren tend to lose their powers after 12.

С Children are only psychic until 12.

D A few children are psychic at some point.

7What happened after the fire? A Doris knew Tom wasn't dead.

ВShe knew she had seen the fire before in a dream.

СHer father had seen Tom's spirit too.

D Her father said he believed what she told him.

8 Doris' mother

Athought Doris was going mad.

Вbecame psychic herself.

С thought Doris was psychic.

D knew Doris was going to become a nurse.

Beyond Belief


Ways of looking

She peered through someone's legs.

Using these dictionary definitions, complete the sentences which follow with a way of looking.

gaze /geiz/ to look steadily, often with admiration peer /різ/ to look very carefully or hard, especially if it is hard to see

look /luk/ to turn the eyes so as to see, examine or find something

see /si:/ to use the eyes, have the power of sight stare /stes/ to look at someone or something without moving your eyes

glance /gla:ns/ to give a rapid look

watch /wDtf/ to look at some event or activity


They sat on the bench and

the tennis match.


He quickly

over his shoulder to see if anyone


was following him.




She wound down her car window and

at the


sign in the fog.





Do you think you could

at the engine for me?


It doesn't seem to be working properly.



Have you ever

a ghost?




The child

at the woman's strange hat for a


good five minutes.




They stood on the hill and

at the river.


Abbreviating clauses

1 I'd seen Tom's spirit walking beside him.

Study these two examples. What are the differences between them?

1We saw them. They were opening the door. -> We saw them opening the door.

2We saw a plane. It crashed into the mountain. -> We saw a plane crash into the mountain.

2 Join these pairs of sentences in the same way.

1 We felt the ground. It started to shake.

2Anna noticed a strange smell. It was coming from a cupboard.

3Did you hear their dog? It was barking all night.

4The police officer caught the thief. He was climbing through the window.




1 Some people and some religions believe in reincarnation. In other words, they believe


that when people die their spirits are reborn in a different form. What do people in your


class believe?

Proving the truth of reincarnation

Did you know?...

• Hypnotism has been used to help people recall their past lives. Two of the most interesting cases concern Jane Evans and a woman called Dolores.

• Jane claimed to remember seven lives including being a servant to one of the wives of King Henry VIII and a murder victim.

Under hypnosis Dolores took on the character of a German woman called Gretchen and spoke German even though she'd never used the language before.


2 What is happening in the pictures? What is the connection with the notes in the box?


James, Malcolm and Yolanda are discussing reincarnation. Listen to their conversation


and answer the questions by writing



(for James),



(for Malcolm) or



(for Yolanda).

1 Who is convinced that there is some truth in reincarnation? 2 Who finds the evidence for reincarnation quite strong ?

3 Who thinks that the use of hypnotism is ridiculous?

4Who is the first to suggest a logical explanation for Jane Evans's past lives?

5Who is interested in discussing other cases?


Who thinks Dolores's knowledge of German is significant?


Who thinks Dolores was trying to trick people?


Listen to the recording again and stop the cassette every time you hear this particular tune. Try to copy the intonation.
2 Listen to these six phrases. Is the speaker showing surprise, showing disbelief or making a simple statement? Write S, D or ST.
1 His own daughter.
2 His own daughter.
3 His own daughter.
4 By car.
5 By car.
6 By car.
Notice the way he says rises. This tune is often
reincarnation. His voice used to express disbelief.
Rising intonation
1 When James says he has been reading a book about reincarnation, Malcolm comments
Reincarnation! Ah, you surely don't believe in that.

1 In the listening James says No sooner had she told the story than some archaeologists found the cellar. Notice that the sentence begins with No sooner. This is an adverb of negative force meaning 'as soon as' or 'just after'.

Look at these pairs of sentences. All the В sentences have an adverb of negative force at the beginning.

1A As soon as she had told the story some archaeologists found the cellar.

ВNo sooner had she told the story than some archaeologists found the cellar.

2A She not only made a lot of mistakes but she also avoided using verbs.

ВNot only did she make a lot of mistakes but she avoided using verbs.

3А Shortly after she told them her tale they discovered the skeleton.

ВHardly had she told them her tale than they discovered the skeleton.

4A We had never seen such a thing before.

ВNever before had we seen such a thing.

Beyond Belie/

2 Now answer these questions about the pairs of sentences in Exercise 1.

1 What difference in meaning, if any, is there between the sentences in each pair? Which is more dramatic/emphatic?

2What happens to the subject and auxiliary verb in the В sentences? What other elements do we need

to include with some of the forms?

3When do you think we would tend to use the В forms more: in speech or in writing?

4Which part of the В sentences would normally be stressed?

Note: In Unit 2 we saw that inversion is used when we make short replies.

Example: A: I like chocolate. B: So do I.

3 Re-formulate the sentences, beginning with the adverbs in brackets. Make any other changes that are necessary.

1The moment she arrived she started to complain.

(No sooner)

2He both sings and dances. (Not only)

3I had never eaten such an awful meal. (Never)

4When the match started, fighting broke out. (No sooner)

5The moment I got into the bath the phone rang.


6It was the most wonderful book I have ever read.



Compulsory letter

You decided to go on a short break to The White Horse Hotel. Unfortunately nothing was as you had been led to expect. Using the notes, write a letter to the hotel manager about the night you spent there.


Bathroom: no soap I towels.


was terrible! Worst meal ever!

Went to bed - noisy, bed uncomfortable. Fell asleep at two o'clock. Moment fell asleep, woke up again. Terrifying noises from ghost - not friendly at all. Shook chains and made terrible groans.




1 Which book, film or story has most frightened


2 What elements are important for an exciting supernatural story?


Extreme adjectives

X In the discussion about reincarnation on p. 152, James says There are some fascinating stories in this book.

Fascinating means very interesting. In this box there are other pairs of adjectives with similar meanings. Match them up. Can you think of any other pairs of adjectives that are like these?

gorgeous cold

boiling huge

starving tiny

big terrified

tired fascinating


frightened interesting hungry bad positive

freezing awful

wonderful exhausted small

hot beautiful


2i Look at the sentences and decide which are right and which are wrong.

1 It's very cold.

2It's very freezing.

3It's absolutely freezing.

4It's absolutely cold.

5It's really cold.

6It's really freezing.

How can we modify ordinary adjectives like cold and extreme adjectives like freezing?

3 Complete these sentences using an appropriate adjective from the box above.


After the walk, we were

as we had not


eaten all day.



The room was really

He had to stand on


the bed to close the door.



Can you close the door? It's

in here !

4Don't eat in that restaurant. The food is

5"You look great after your holiday!" "Yes, I feel


He was so

when he saw the spider that he





What a(n)

dress! It's the most beautiful


one I've ever seen.



The book was so

that she read it in one go.


They live in a(n)

house. It's got ten


bedrooms and six bathrooms.


I didn't sleep at all last night. I feel totally


I'm absolutely

he used to be a policeman.


I'm not really very

I had a big breakfast.

4 Anna is asking questions. Listen to how Martin, who always exaggerates, replies.

ANNA: Are you cold?

MARTIN: COLD? I'm absolutely freezing. ANNA: IS that an interesting book?

MARTIN: Interesting? It's absolutely fascihating. ANNA: Was the film bad?

MARTIN: BAD? It was absolutely awful.

ANNA: Are you tired?

MARTIN: TIRED? I'm absolutely exhausted.

1 What happens to Martin's voice when he repeats the adjective in Anna's question? How does he pronounce the extreme adjective in the answer?

2Listen again and copy Martin's intonation as closely as you can.

3Working in pairs, take it in turns to practise the questions and replies. Then invent further exchanges using other extreme adjectives.

Beyond Belie/


The mysterious hitchhiker


In Unit 4 we looked at telling a story. Here is some more practice.


1 Read the two versions of the same story and note what the differences between them


are. Think about vocabulary, grammar and style.

2 In pairs, write the end of the second version of the story, using words and expressions you have learnt in this unit.

3 Write a composition

on this subject. You were walking through the countryside one


day with a friend when

you came across a ruined mansion. Describe what happened.




1 Read the text below and decide which word А, В, С or D best fits each space. There is


an example at the beginning (0).



We were watching TV (0).when.. we heard a lot of barking coming from our kitchen.


There, we came (1)

Jasper, our dog, throwing a furry bundle around the room. This


turned (2)

to be Flopsie, the pet rabbit (3)

to the children next door. We had

already been in (4)


with our neighbours as Jasper had dug up half of their garden.

Jasper had obviously broken (5)



the rabbit's hutch and killed it.



We knew that the neighbours were out and that we had to (6)

quickly. I gave

Flopsie a soapy bath and my wife dried and brushed its fur (7)

it looked as good as

new. Making sure the coast was (8)



, I jumped over the fence and placed Flopsie

lovingly in its home. Ten minutes (9)



we heard the Greenaway's car come back and

sat in our kitchen (10)


with anticipation.





All of a sudden, there was a loud (11)


of terror from outside. Naturally, we could

not (12)


it and went out with a look of concern on our faces. Mrs Greenaway stood

white-faced (13)


the fence with Flopsie in her arms. "What's the (14)

?", I

asked. "Is anything wrong with Flopsie?" "Flopsie's dead," she cried, "but what is


extraordinary is that we (15)


her last week!"




A as

В while

С when

D that






A across

В into

С out


D up







A off

В out

С into

D down







A possessed


В owing

С owned

D belonging




A problems


В argument


С trouble


D difficult




A up

В into

С off

D with








A act

В make

С perform



D behave





A during

В once

С until



D that






A empty

В free

С clear


D open






A afterwards

В ago

С after


D later





A shivering


В trembling


С yawning

D gasping




A crash

В splash

С scream


D sigh





A forget


В defy

С ignore



D deny





A on

В in

С by

D off










A matter

В wrong

С happening

D up




A dug

В planted

С buried

D grave




Ji Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space.

Most ghost stories are set in mysterious old houses or castles. The ghosts themselves,

(0) whose, spirits wander the earth, (1)

usually the victims of some horrible crime.

This is not always the case as the (2)

story shows.


When my friend Paul was a schoolboy, he often (3)

to chat to Mr Scott, an

elderly gentleman living on his (4)

Mr Scott was a keen gardener. He would

(5)be looking after his lawn or his flowers and Paul was in the habit of saying a

(6)words to him over the fence.

One summer's evening, as Paul was making his (7)

home from school, he saw, as

usual, Mr Scott in his garden. (8)

old man was busily weeding his flower beds.

When he saw Paul, he invited him into the garden with a (9)

of his hand. Slowly,

they strolled round, admiring the flower beds. Then, to Paul's surprise, Mr Scott bent

down and picked a bunch of his finest dahlias. "Here boy," he said. "Give (10)


your mother."



No (11)

had he arrived home than he presented the flowers to his mother. He

then told her that they were with Mr Scott's compliments. His mother's face went red


anger. "You wicked boy!" she shouted. "How dare you say (13)

a thing! I

bumped (14)

his daughter in the supermarket this morning. She told me that the

poor old chap passed (15)

in his sleep last Friday."



1 What do you know about the pyramids of Egypt and why they were built?

2Quickly read the text and find out if there is any new or surprising information in it.

3 Now decide which lines are correct (•) and which contain an extra word which should not be there.


It seems that the mystery of why the Pyramids /


were built may have been solved. Until a quite


recently people got used to think that they

2were just tombs for pharaohs. Instead, of

3the connection with astronomy seems too much

4more important. Egyptologists they have often

5asked themselves how long time it took

6to build them and why did build them in the first

7place. Experts came up with it a suggestion that the

8Egyptians may have believed in the River Nile

9was the earthly equivalent exact of the Milky

10 Way. Many are agree that the sizes of the three Giza II pyramids are in proportion to the three stars of

12Orion. Nothing, then, was by the chance.

13Rather, than the souls of dead pharaohs were

14deliberately being projected through shafts to

15reach at their goal of the Orion constellation.

Beyond Belie/


Creatures of the night

1 You are going to read some information about six creatures of the night. For questions 1-13 choose from the creatures (A-F). Some of the creatures may be chosen more than once. Where more than one answer is required, these may be given in any order. There is an example at the beginning (0).

The cries of which creatures warn of a death to come?

2 Which of the creatures do you think is the most/least terrifying?

Do any of them corrrespond with creatures from your own country or culture?

A The Banshee

Banshees are female spirits of the Gaelic and Celtic peoples.

They are rarely seen but often heard. A banshee is said to be a woman with long black hair and eyes red from weeping and dressed in a green

robe and grey cloak. She has an appalling cry, described by some who have heard it as a blend between the howling of a wolfhound, the cry of wild geese, the screams of an abandoned child, and the groans of a woman in labour.

The wail of a banshee has only one meaning - that a member of the family which hears it is doomed to die.

В The Duppy

A type of ghost raised by people of the West Indies to perform some service, usually of revenge. A duppy is raised by calling the name of a dead person continuously over their grave until the duppy arises

through the earth and awaits instructions.

A duppy can only cause vomiting by breathing on the victim or convulsions by touching him or her. When it has performed the task, it should be rewarded by placing rum and tobacco on the grave.

Anyone who has reason to fear duppy-attack may keep them away by sprinkling tobacco seed around the house.

С Menahune

Night spirits of the Hawaiian Islands. They are unusual spirits because they are helpful rather than dangerous. Like the brownies of the British Isles, the menahune appear when the household is asleep and do all the housework. It seems, however, that the menahune are very particular about their employers. They do their work only for families which they feel to be especially pleasant and kind. Very few people have seen the menahune, which are believed to have pointed ears, shaggy black hair and tiny agile bodies.

D Abiku

An insatiable demon of the night which preys upon the Yoruba people of West Africa. Parents living in the little villages huddled deep in the forest are terrified of Abiku because his diet consists of children. He relishes nothing better than a plump, newborn

child. As soon as the sun sets, parents rush their children into the huts, and sometimes hide them under mats or blankets so that Abiku will not find them.

Nobody seems able to give a definite description of Abiku, except he is as shapeless as smoke. Everyone agrees, however, on his principal peculiarity. He has no stomach, and is therefore obliged to eat continuously because he never knows the satisfaction of feeling full.

E The Azeman

A rare example of a vampire actually appearing in the form of a vampire bat. Fortunately the azeman is restricted to certain regions of north-eastern South America. The azeman is invariably a woman. During the day she appears to be perfectly normal, but after dark she changes into a bat and flies around the village in search of victims. In normal vampire bat style, she seeks a sleeper whose foot is exposed and sucks the blood. Luckily it is easy to prevent an azeman from entering one's hut simply by propping a broom across the doorway.

F Domovoi and Domovikha

These are Russian household spirits. On the whole they are benign spirits, who live beneath the stove or doorstep or in the cellar. When a family moves into a new home, it is wise to place a piece of bread beneath the stove to attract Domovoi. His wife accompanies him but lives in the cellar.

Domovikha never speaks, but one may hear Domovoi during the night. When he chatters and murmurs softly, the family may be sure that nothing unpleasant is likely to happen. But when he sobs or groans loudly it is a sign of misfortune, and Domovoi weeping is a sure sign of a death in the family.

Humans rarely see Domovoi and never see Domovikha. It may be

that he resembles a small man covered with silky hair, who might be mistaken for a dog or cat. A Domovoi sighting is extremely unfortunate and,

if he does appear, it may be better for the family to move house.


Match the replies to the speakers

1 Listen to the replies given by five women to the question If you came back in another life, what would you like to be and why?

2 What would you like to come back as?


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