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The Natural World

FREE TO CHOOSE

FIRST THOUGHTS

What would happen if cars and lorries were banned from city centres?

LISTENING

1 Read the situation and decide what you think should be done.

Marsham is a small town near London. In recent years its streets have become very congested. A traffic-free town centre could be achieved by building a bypass around the village. A number of people support the plan. Others are worried about the effect such changes would have.

2Three councillors - Eric, Charles and Bernice - are discussing the proposals. Listen to their discussion and answer the questions by writing

E (for Eric)

С (for Charles) or В (for Bernice).

1 Who is most worried about the effects of a

bypass?

Q

2Who is most concerned about improving conditions in the village?

3Who talks about what would happen to small

shops?

Q

4Who has a vision of how a new village centre could look?

5Who becomes very enthusiastic about change?

6Who is angry at the suggestions?

7Who says something needs to be done for the safety of pedestrians?

3 Listen again and make notes in answer to these questions.

1Why is Bernice worried about the proposed bypass?

2Why does Charles think the bypass is essential?

3Why does Charles think Marsham could be attractive to tourists?

4Why doesn't Bernice want Marsham to be a tourist centre?

SPEAKING

Managing conversations

1 sten to the discussion again and tick (•) which expressions the speakers use for the following.

2Can you think of any other expressions that you could add?

3Work with a partner and respond to these statements. Begin your response using one of the expressions we have just looked at.

1Smoking should be banned in all public places.

2Men are much better drivers than women.

3Nuclear energy will kill us all in the end.

4You can never trust a man with a beard.

5People are old at 40.

6Everyone should live together before they get married.

The Natural World

READING

Smokers' rights

 

1 Read the article and answer these questions.

1 Who is the school for and what is the row about? 2 What is the history of smoking at the school?

3Who banned it and why?

4How do the centre's users feel about this?

5What do you think should be done?

ROW OVER CIGGIES BAN

A row has erupted after smoking was banned at a London language school. A room which used to be for smokers was turned into a non-smoking area. It was new school director Janine Murray who took the decision. What Janine insists is that the ban was introduced to protect staff and students from the effects of passive smoking. Murray maintained: "What smokers should realise is that if they want to commit suicide it's one thing; killing other

people with their selfish habit is another. Most of our students are in their teens and early twenties - we shouldn't be enouraging them to wreck their lungs."

No smoke without fire

Colombian Mariana Gomes, a First Certificate student who is leading the fight to have the ban lifted, disagrees. She is planning a demonstration. Darkhaired Mariana vowed to fight the ban. "It's Mrs Murray who has caused all the trouble. The old director was

much more easygoing. Studying for an exam is stressful work. Cigarettes can calm our nerves. All we want is one tiny room."

Smoke came out of my ears

Teacher Bernie Green supports Mariana: "Even non-smokers on the staff are furious. What makes me angry is that people are kept here most of the day studying, so it's unreasonable to tell them they can't smoke. They are not kids."

SPEAKING

WRITING

JL Understanding the organisation of the text

What is the purpose of

athe headline?

bthe opening sentence?

с the first sentence of each paragraph?

Work in groups of three and take one of these roles from the article you read: Janine Murray, Mariana Gomes or Bernie Green.

Look at the diagram which shows the floor where the smokers' room used to be. Try and find a solution which will satisfy everybody. Use as many ways of giving opinions and agreeing and disagreeing as you can.

deach paragraph?

ethe secondary headlines between the paragraphs?

A newspaper article

You were at the meeting where the future of Marsham was discussed. Using the article about the smoking ban as a rough guide, write a report of the meeting.

Before you begin:

Invent ages and occupations for Bernice, Charles and Eric. Think carefully how you will describe them.

Decide on the angle you are going to take on the story, i.e. are you going to favour Bernice or Charles?

Think what headlines and sub-headings you could use to break the story up into interesting paragraphs.

The Natural World

WHERE ON EARTH?

FIRST THOUGHTS

1 If you could visit anywhere in the world, where would it be?

2 What is the most remote or isolated place you have ever been to?

USE OF ENGLISH

1 You are going to read an article about the Galapagos Islands. Before you read, find out if anyone knows who Charles Darwin was and why he was important.

2 Now read Parts One and Two of the article, in exercises 3 and 4, and answer these questions.

1 Where are the islands and how were they formed?

2Why were they left alone for such a long time?

3What was the islands' first contact with man?

4Why were the tortoises Darwin saw so special?

5What problems did visitors to the islands indirectly cause? How were they solved?

6What new dangers face the islands?

3 Read Part One again and decide which word A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Part One

One of the most (0) remote places on earth surely

(1)to be the Galapagos Islands, which

(2)in the Pacific Ocean 1100 kilometres

(3)the west of Ecuador. These (4) islands made largely from volcanic rock were

(5)to go their own way for millions of years without (6) interference. Most notably, the islands are (7) to the giant tortoise and iguanas. There are also turtles weighing up to 230 kilos and (8) a cormorant which cannot fly!

The islands were not (9)

until a few hundred

years ago when pirates came (10)

them and

buried their treasure there. Unpopular crew

members were often (11)"

" there too! Later,

in 1835, Charles Darwin visited the islands in

(12)to study the wildlife and used his

observations as the basis for his (13) of natural selection and evolution. He noticed, for

(14), that many of the islands had their own

(15)of tortoise which had evolved according to each environment in isolation over millions of years.

0

A far

B remote

C alone

D solitary

1

A should

 

B ought

C has

D is

 

2

A lay

B combine

C lie

D impose

3

A by B in

C at

D to

 

 

4

A anti-social

B inhospitable C unkind

 

D awkward

 

 

 

 

 

5

A made

B allowed C let

D engaged

6

A human

B humane

C humanity

 

D mankind

 

 

 

 

 

7

A dwelling

B house

C residence

D home

8

A yet

B while

C just

D even

 

9

A disturbed

B molested

C annoyed

 

D teased

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

A into

B across

C up

D by

 

11

A removed

E vanished

C disappeared

 

D mislaid

 

 

 

 

 

12

A time

B case

C order

D purpose

13

A thoughts

B wonders

C theories

 

D guesses

 

 

 

 

 

14

A once

B instants

C example

D chance

15

A style

B brand

C mark

D species

4 Complete the rest of the passage about the Galapagos Islands by using one word only for each space.

Part Two

 

 

In Darwin's time there were very (1)

natural

predators and a balance (2)

the different

species existed. Wild birds showed so (3)

fear

that the first men could walk up to them and touch

them (4)

 

them flying off. The biggest danger

(5)

upon a time was the occasional fire which

helped to (6)

the tortoise population down.

However, the early visitors (7)

some

unwelcome guests: they introduced rats, cats, pigs and dogs, (8) grew in number and preyed upon the iguanas and ate the tortoises' eggs.

(9) creatures, part of an evolutionary process of millions of years, were in danger of (10)

lost in hundreds. Fortunately, radical steps were

(11)

to hunt and destroy as many of these

invaders as (12)

, although the wild cats and

rats have proved difficult to find. (13)

recent

years, a new threat has appeared in the form of

tourism. (14)

the government of Ecuador's

best efforts, the tide of tourists, (15)

appears

irresistible, may again upset the fine balance of nature of the unpopulated islands.

ОCan you think of any places of natural beauty or interest in your country which have been spoilt or destroyed by tourism? What steps could be taken to preserve them or to repair the damage?

ОRead this letter and tick the lines which are correct. Where a line has an extra word which should not be there, write it down.

Dear Angela,

0It was great to hear from you after such a long /

00time. We had wondered what on the earth

1had happened to you; although I was astonished to

2get your letter. Your research it sounds very

3interesting - I can't imagine about being stuck

4on a small island with just birds for company.

5How long time did you spend there altogether ? It

6sounds lonely. How did you arrive there in the

7first place? Whatever made you to go?

8The most people wouldn't be able to stand it but I

9think it is a very marvellous thing to do.

10You don't say what was interested you the most.

11If I were there I would do a research into the

12giant tortoise! The man certainly has had a

13devastating impact on it. I would ban tourists

14for 50 years. Charles Darwin was the responsible

15for making them too much famous!

The Natural World

WRITING

Compulsory letter

Angela Maybury has just returned home from the Galapagos Islands. You have written to her to ask if she would be willing to come to your school to talk at a meeting of the Natural History Club. Read Angela's reply carefully and the set of notes which you have made for yourself; then write a letter to her, organising the pre-talk appointment and answering her questions.

Write between 120 - 180 words in an appropriate style. Do not include addresses.

Thank you very much for your kind letter. I would be delighted to come along and talk to your club; I didn't realise there were so many young naturalists in my home town!

I will be returning to South America in about six weeks but I would be free to come along one evening. Early evening around five o'clock would be best for me. If you can give me a few dates to choose from, I'll see what I can do.

It would be very helpful, as I haven't done this kind of thing before, if you could tell me what you would like to know and the knowledge I can expect of the people who come to the talk. It might be an idea if we had a quick chat in person before I gave the talk. Any ideas?

I

have lots of slides and video film which

I

could bring with me. Do you know if the

school has

a slide projector and/or video

 

 

and screen

which I could perhaps use?

Yours sincerely,

Angela Maybury

Notes

Children 12-17 little I no knowledge of islands.

What made her go?

What help did she receive?

Were there other colleagues?

Where were they from?

Meet at my parents' house next Monday?

Video - yes; school slide projector is broken.

Judging by Appearances

JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS

FIRST THOUGHTS You have been invited to a party where you don't know anyone at all. Which people would you want to meet, and which ones would you wish to avoid talking to at all costs?

READING

1 Think of three things that you would like to find out about the art of face analysis.

 

Then read the article to see if your questions are answered.

 

 

 

 

Secrets of the face

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

can be analysed in

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

their turn. People who

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

have not got

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

conventional or

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

beautiful faces should

 

Is it

really possible to judge someone's

character

 

 

 

 

 

 

not worry, as ugly

 

from

their face? The

Chinese seem

to

think so.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

people tend to be

 

For over 2,000 years

they

have

been

practising

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lucky.

 

Siang Mien, which is

the art

of

judging

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anyway, let us see

 

character and predicting fortune

from

an

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

how Siang Mien works

 

analysis

 

of the face.

It developed

in

the

ancient

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

by using Princess Diana

 

imperial court of China and

consisted

of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

as a practical example.

 

jealously guarded secrets

that were

passed from

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

To begin with, we can

 

masters

to a few chosen

apprentices.

The secrets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

say that she has got a

 

of face

 

analysis were hidden away

in

special

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

jade-face which means

 

 

books which only a few could look

at.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

that she must be

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

strong-willed. This

These secrets cannot have been that well guarded and

shape also belongs to people

who are said to have had

must have got out because practically all Chinese

difficult childhoods. As you may know, the Princess's

practise some form of face analysis. Mothers tell their

parents were divorced when she was a child and this

daughters that men with flat noses and small ear

time must have been a period of great unhappiness.

lobes will make shy and rather dull husbands.

Turning to more specific features, we can see that

 

So how does this analysis work? Well, to start with,

one eye is a little larger than the other. It is a known

 

 

 

 

people's faces can be classified according to one of ten

fact that people with eyes of different sizes are often

brought up by step-parents. They are also believed to

basic shapes, each of which has its own special name.

be charming as well of being capable of great jealousy.

A triangular face, for example, is called a fire-face. One

We can see from this photograph that the top of her

which is square is known as a wall-face, while one

ears goes above the line of her eyebrows. People who

which is diamond shaped is a jade-face. There are even

have high ears such as hers are likely to become

bucket-facesl

famous before the age of 30, while those who

Once the basic shape has been decided, then parts

combine this with eyes of different sizes will be lucky.

of the face such as the eyes, nose, chin and mouth

 

2 Now read the article again and choose the best answers to these questions.

1 In

China, who knew the secrets of Siang Mien?

A

Those who could read.

ВExperts and their students.

СOrdinary people.

D The emperor and selected courtiers.

2 Why has Siang Mien become common knowledge?

ABecause everyone practises it.

ВAt some point, its secrets were given away. С The secrets remained well-guarded.

D More people had access to the special books.

3Chinese mothers think men with A big ears are exciting.

Вsmall ear lobes are kind.

Сflat noses are not interesting.

D small ears and flat noses can't be trusted.

4 A jade-face is best described as

Aflat at the bottom and pointed at the top.

Вpointed at the top and bottom.

Сpointed at the bottom but flat at the top. D oval.

5 Why doesn't it matter if you're not good looking?

ABecause you'll worry less.

ВYou may have some attractive features. С Fortune may smile on you.

D People are attracted to interesting faces.

6People with eyes of different sizes A often have step-parents.

Вare usually unhappy.

Сare often divorced.

D are supposed to be generous.

7 Princess Diana

A

proves the truth of Siang Mien.

В

has low ears.

С

was over 30 when she became famous.

D

has an ordinary face.

3 tend to

According to the text, ugly people tend to be lucky. Tend to means generally but not always, e.g. People from Scandinavian countries tend to have fair hair.

Now make some general statements about the people from your own country.

4 Discussion points

1 How far do you believe in this science?

2Do you consider it to be convincing, ridiculous or amusing?

3Could Siang Mien be dangerous in any way?

Judging by Appearances

LANGUAGE STUDY

Making intelligent guesses

1

In the

article it says Princess Diana has got a jade-

face

which

means she must be strong-willed.

Must is being used to make a deduction.

Match the example sentences of guesses with their definitions.

1 The killer can't be far away - the body is still warm.

2She must be hiding somewhere in the area.

3He must have been murdered at ten o'clock.

4She can't have killed him. She was with her mother.

A A guess about a situation in the present

(positive)

В A guess about a situation in the past

(negative)

С A guess about a

situation in the past

(positive)

D A guess about a

situation in the present

(negative)

2 Make deductions about the situations in the pictures. If you are not sure use might (not) rather than must or can't.

A further passive construction

They are also believed to be charming.

She is said to have had a difficult childhood.

Change these sentences using this passive construction.

1 People claim the Mona Lisa is the world's most famous painting.

2 Experts believe it was a portrait of a noblewoman.

3They say her smile hides a secret.

4Many believe it is Leonardo's masterpiece.

5

Scientists k n o w he was a wonderful engineer too.

6

Historians think he was unhappy in old age.

8 Judging by Appearances

VOCABULARY

Adjectives of personality

1 Look at the adjectives of personality in the box. How many syllables does each word have? Mark the stress in the words of more than one syllable.

Example: selfish

selfish bad-tempered tough crafty sensitive sensible strict trustworthy dull shy mean reliable stubborn silly nice cheerful sympathetic clumsy loyal gentle

2i Fill the gaps with an adjective from the box. Use each word once only.

1 Janet is incredibly

She always arrives on

time and does her job well.

 

2It's impossible to say anything to his grandmother. One word and she starts crying. She is so

3

I wonder why he is so

? He's got lots of

 

money but he hates spending it.

4

When she was a child, her parents were incredibly

 

Whenever she did the smallest thing

 

wrong they would send her to bed.

5

Ann is such a

 

girl. She is always laughing

 

and smiling.

 

 

6

You can't go on a country walk wearing high heels.

 

Do be

for once.

7

I'll give you a lift home if you're

to me.

8

She was so

When I told her my problems,

 

I immediately felt better.

 

9

In westerns the hero is always

He always

 

beats his enemies and can put up with any

 

hardship.

 

 

10

That's the second plate you've broken this week.

 

Why do you have to be so

?

11

I think he is an extremely

boy. He laughs

 

at stupid things and never concentrates in class.

12

Children are often really

They hide

 

behind their mothers when guests come.

13

Don't be

, Cathy. You've got to learn to

 

share things with other children.

14

She is 100%

. I'd leave my money, car,

 

anything, for her to look after.

 

15When I broke my leg, the nurse was so that she hardly hurt me at all.

16Why do you get angry all the time? You are so

17Bob is my best friend. He remained through all my problems.

18He is such a person with his boring little job and his boring little wife.

19

He is terribly

Once he has made up his

 

mind, it is impossible to get him to change it even

 

if it's obvious that he's wrong.

20

The general was really

Just when the

 

enemy thought they had won the battle, he played

 

his best card.

 

О In pairs, use the pictures and descriptions below to work out your partner's character. Then tell each other.

LISTENING

1 Read the "lonely hearts" advert and check that you understand them.

2 Clive and Jenny both work in the same office. Last Friday, just for fun, they decided to reply to an advertisement in the "lonely hearts" column of a magazine. It is Monday morning and they are comparing notes about their weekend dates. Listen to Clive and Jenny and answer these questions. For questions 1 to 4 choose your answer from choices 1-8 or A-G. For the other questions choose from A, B or C

6 How did Jenny feel about her date's conversation? A She was fascinated by what he had to say.

B She wished he would change the topic. C She disagreed with what he had to say.

7 What did Clive discover about his date? A They recognised each other.

B They had nothing in common.

C They had a childhood connection.

8 What did Clive feel about his date's personality? A It was a surprise.

B It matched her appearance. C It went with her job.

Physical description

X When we describe someone we tend to follow this order in our description: height, build, age, hair, face, complexion, extra features, dress. Study this example.

My cousin, Paul, is a tallish man in his mid thirties. He is a bit plump and has got long straight hair which he wears in a pony tail. He has a round friendly-looking face with a little scar on his cheek from a childhood accident. He has got bright blue eyes and wears glasses. He has got a beard. He isn't very smart and tends to wear shabby clothes.

2 Height and build

Match these adjectives with the definitions.

 

frail

 

overweight.'

 

stocky

 

attractively thin.

Someone who is

slim

is

(old and) weak-looking

 

plump

 

unattractively thin.

 

skinny

 

shortish but well-built.

 

 

 

 

3 Age

1 What ages do these words and expressions describe?

A

elderly

B in your teens C a youth D a pensioner E middle-aged

F

a toddler

G in your early/mid/late thirties

2Tell your partner your age and the age of some family members without being exact about it.

4 Face

1 Find people in your class who have got round, oval and square faces. 2 What are scars, moles, wrinkles, lines and freckles?

3 What colour of skin do people have if they are pale, tanned or sallow?

5 Eyes

When we describe people's eyes we normally start with their size, followed by shape and colour, e.g. She has got big round blue eyes.

SIZE SHAPE COLOUR

Put these sentences into the correct order.

1 Susan has got brown/large/round/eyes.

2Klaus has got blue/bright/eyes/small.

3Mary has eyes/green/large.

4Mariko has/almond-shaped/large/dark brown/eyes.

What are eyebrows and eyelashes?

READING

WRITING

Judging by Appearances

6 Hair

When we describe people's hair, we normally give length first followed by colour and style, e.g. He has got long dark hair in a pony tail.

Match these adjectives with the pictures.

1 balding 2 straight 3 curly 4 bald 5 spiky 6 wavy

How is hair if it is in a bun or in pigtails?

7 Clothes

Match these adjectives with the definitions.

1

casual

A

old/worn a lot

2

scruffy

В

carefully dressed

3

shabby

С

well (expensively) dressed

4

smart

D

informal

5

neat

E

untidy/dirty

Look at this short description of a character from a book. It is very effective, but how is it different from the description of Paul on page 98?

Eve was a small woman with a tiny waist and slender elegant legs. She had small hands with long tapering fingers. Her face was wide at the cheekbones and narrow at the chin, her forehead high, her upper lip short and her mouth full and lovely. Slightly tilted, her pretty nose was a little too small for her face. She had large hazel-green eyes and black eyebrows like Chinese brush-strokes, not unlike Sean's, and her thick, shiny, dark hair reached to the middle of her back. But she was very small, no more than five feet or five feet one at best. Liza didn't know her weight, they had no scales, but when she was sixteen Eve estimated seven and a half stone for herself and eight stone and a bit for Liza and that was probably right. Yet this tiny woman had somehow moved a man one and a half times her weight and nearly six feet tall.

And put him where? Somewhere in the wood, Liza decided, when she thought about it around that sixteenth birthday.

You were a witness to a bank robbery in your town. You got a good look at the criminals when they took off their masks in the getaway car. Write about the robbery and include a full description of the criminals.

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