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G R A M M A R 2 4 M A K I N G C O M P A R I S O N S

5 Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown. Do not change the meaning.

a)That's the best meal I've ever eaten. I've never eaten a ...better meal

b)Fish and meat are the same price in some countries. Fish costs just

c)I've never enjoyed myself so much. I've never had

d)If you run a lot, you will get fitter. The more

e)The doctor can't see you earlier than Wednesday, I'm afraid. Wednesday is

f)I must have a rest. I can't walk any more. I must have a rest. I can't go

g)Home computers used to be much more expensive. Home computers aren't

h)I don't know as much Italian as Sue does. Sue knows

i)I thought that learning to drive would be difficult, but it isn't. Learning to drive is

j)Barbara can skate just as well as John can.

John isn't

143

FIRST CERTIFICATE LANGUAGE PRACTICE

6Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

a)Your car was cheaper than mine. cost

Your car

cost

less

than

mine

did.

b)I'm not as good at maths as you are. better

You

I am.

c)Keith is slightly taller than Nigel. little

Keith

Nigel.

d)Bill was growing angrier all the time. and

Bill

angrier.

e)Sally tried as hard as she could. did

 

Sally

best.

f)

I thought this film would be better.

 

 

as

 

 

This film

I expected.

g) This is the bumpiest road I've ever driven along!

 

 

such

 

 

I've never

road.

h)

When you eat a lot, you get fat.

 

 

more

 

 

The

you get.

i) George said he couldn't do any better.

 

 

could

 

 

George said it

do.

j) This year's exam and last year's exam were equally difficult.

 

 

just

 

 

This year's exam

last year's exam.

144

G R A M M A R 2 4 M A K I N G C O M P A R I S O N S

7Look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. Tick each correct line. If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space.

Transport solutions

First of all, walking is obviously the cheapest means of travelling, and can be the quicker

in a city centre. Of course, the further you have to go, the more so tired you will become.

In some ways walking is more healthier than travelling by bus or car, but it can be just as the unhealthy because cities are the much more polluted than they used to be. Cars are faster

of course and more than convenient, but as cities become more of crowded, parking is getting harder. Sometimes public transport is better, even though buses don't go as fast as cars do it. Cars are a lot more and convenient but as they cause most pollution, it is the better to avoid using them if possible. In a city the fastest way of travelling is on a bike, which keeps you fitter and is not so that noisy as a motorbike or a car.

K ey p o i n t s

1

Check spelling rules for comparative and superlative adjectives.

 

 

In one syllable adjectives ending with one consonant, double the final

 

 

consonant.

 

 

 

 

 

 

big

bigger

the biggest

 

 

 

In one/two syllable adjectives ending with -y, change y to i.

 

 

happy

happier

the happiest

 

 

2

Adverbs form comparatives and superlatives like adjectives.

 

 

fast

faster

 

the fastest

 

 

3

Auxiliaries are often used at the end of a comparative clause to avoid repeating

 

 

the verb.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wendy works twice as hard as I do.

(NOT ... as I work)

145

Put one suitable word in each space.

 

 

Holiday problems

 

 

 

 

Somehow I always have problems when I go away on holiday. (1)

every.

year my travel agent promises me that my holiday will be (2)

best

I have ever had, but none of these promises has ever (3)

 

true. This

year I got food poisoning (4)

day I arrived. It must have been the

fish I ate at the hotel (5)

evening. In (6)

 

morning I

felt terrible, and I was seen by two doctors. I tried to explain my problem to

them, but (7)

of them spoke English, (8)

 

didn't

help. It took me (9)

of the first week to recover, and I spent three

or four days sitting next to (10)

hotel swimming pool reading

newspapers. By the time I felt better, (11)

weather had changed,

but I was determined to go sight-seeing, and do (12)

 

swimming.

Unfortunately (13)

 

of the museums were open, as there was

(14)

strike. I would have enjoyed myself (15)

if I

had stayed at home.

2Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

a)That's the worst film I've ever seen.

worse

 

 

 

 

 

I've

never

seen

a

worse

film.

b)There aren't any sandwiches left, I'm afraid. all

 

I'm afraid

 

eaten.

c)

I thought that Martin's last novel was more interesting.

 

latest

 

 

 

Martin's

 

interesting as his last one.

d)

I talked to neither of Harry's sisters.

 

 

either

 

 

 

I didn't

,

Harry's sisters.

146

G R A M M A R 25 C O N S O L I D A T I O N 5

e)Bob is a much better swimmer than George. swim

George

f)If you walk slowly, it takes longer to get there. longer

The more

g)Calling the police isn't any good. no

It's

h)I phoned Norman last of all.

person

Norman

i)This is the best party I've ever been to. a

I've

j)I thought this meal would cost more than it did.

less

This meal

as Bob.

it takes to get there.

the police.

phoned.

good party as this.

thought.

3 Complete each sentence with one suitable word. Do not use the word piece.

a)

Would you like another

slice.

of cake?

b)

There is another

of stairs after this one.

c)

What a lovely

of hair you have.

d)

Put up your hand if you need another

of paper.

e)

There was an interesting

 

of news about Japan in the paper.

f)

Could you put a few

of coal on the fire?

g)

Pour me a

of water, would you?

h) They gave me a very large

of potatoes with my dinner.

i)

There was a terrible flash of lightning and a

of thunder.

j)

Oh bother, I've split my new

 

of shorts.

147

FIRST CERTIFICATE LANGUAGE PRACTICE

4Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word given in capitals, and the meaning stays the same. The word cannot be changed in any way.

a)

You are not allowed to park here.

PARKING

 

Parking is not allowed here,

 

b)

There aren't any tables, chairs or beds in the house.

FURNITURE

c)

This room seems very crowded.

PEOPLE

d)

Can you tell me about guided tours of the city?

INFORMATION

e)

The people in the theatre were enthusiastic.

AUDIENCE

f)

I like maths best.

SUBJECT

g)

There are a lot of cars on this road today.

TRAFFIC

5Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

a)Jim teaches French.

works

Jim

works

as

a

French

teacher.

b)Can't you do better than that? the

Is

do?

c)I haven't eaten lobster before. ever

This is the

eaten.

d)Is Julia a good violinist? play

Can Julia

well?

e)Actually, the only thing you need is a screwdriver. all

Actually

a screwdriver.

f)Both of the lifts were out of order. of

Neither

working.

148

GRAMMAR 25 CONSOLIDATION 5

6 Put one word in each space.

a) My trousers are creased. I must iron them

 

b)

Could you give me

information about the Arts Festival?

c)

I can't come out tonight. I have

work to do.

d)

Look at your hair! You must have

cut!

e)

I've decided to buy

new furniture.

f)

Thank you very much. You've been

great help.

g)

Is this

cafe you told me about?

 

h)

Chris was

last person to leave the room.

7 Look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. Tick each correct line. If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space.

The house painters

Last week some painters came round to

paint my house. I usually do this kind of a job myself, but I've been here very busy for the last month. So I called a more local decorating firm, and they agreed to do it for a reasonable price. Three men arrived on Monday the morning to paint the outside walls. Of course, they were used the wrong colour and spilt paint all over the front door. Some one of the windows

upstairs were open, and some of paint went inside the house and ruined both the carpet in the living-room. They also broke a window.

I phoned their company, and the manager assured me that they would repaint than the walls. Then I went away on a business.

I've just come back, and the walls are a different colour, but it is still such the wrong colour.

If I had done the job myself, I would have finished it by now.

149

Explanations

Understanding

Verbs are often followed by particles like back, off, through, up, etc (the word

phrasal verbs

particle means adverb or preposition). Sometimes both verb and particle have

 

their normal meaning. At other times there is a new meaning when they are

 

put together. Compare:

 

 

Can you bring up the radio from downstairs?

(normal meaning)

 

She has brought up two children on her own.

 

 

(new meaning = look after until adult)

 

 

The term 'phrasal verb' is used for the second case, where the verb + particle

together has a special meaning. Phrasal verbs are common in informal English.

Often one phrasal verb can have several different meanings and the correct one is only clear from the context.

There are four types of phrasal verbs. These are covered in Grammar 26 and 27. Grammar 26: • phrasal verbs with two particles.

 

phrasal verbs with one particle; there must be an object; the

 

 

particle is inseparable.

 

 

Grammar 27: •

phrasal verbs with one particle; there must be an object; the

 

 

particle can be separated from the verb.

 

phrasal verbs with one particle; there is no object.

Verbs with two

A selection of phrasal verbs is listed here with examples. Others, and other

particles

meanings of those listed here, are included in the Practice section.

 

Most of the verbs in the list need an object, and the object can only come at the

 

end (so the verbs are inseparable).

 

 

I'm looking forward to my holidays.

 

 

But some verbs are marked with an asterisk *. With these verbs there is another

 

form: there is no object, and the final particle is not used.

 

 

I've decided to cut down on smoking. I've decided to cut down.

 

Cut down on*

 

 

 

I've decided to cut down on smoking. (reduce the amount of)

 

Catch up with*

 

 

 

They are too far ahead for us to catch up with them.

(reach the same place

 

as)

 

 

 

Come up against

 

 

 

I'm afraid we've come up against a problem we can't

solve. (meet, find)

 

Come up with

 

 

 

Have you come up with an answer yet? (think of)

 

150

G R A M M A R 26 PHRASAL VERBS 1

 

Drop in on*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I dropped in on Bill and Sheila on my way

home.

(visit for a short time)

 

Face up to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You must face up to reality! (accept, deal with)

 

 

Feel up to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You must feel up to going to work.

(have the strength and energy to do)

 

Get away with

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jack stole the money and got away with

it.

(do something bad and not be

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

punished)

 

Get along/on with*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do you get along/on with your new boss? (have good relations with)

 

Get on with

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stop talking and get on with your work!

(continue with)

 

Get out of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/ managed to get out of working

late.

(avoid a responsibility)

 

Get round to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/ haven't got round to

decorating yet.

 

(find

time to do)

 

Get up to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What has young Bill been getting up to? (do something bad)

 

Go in for

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do you go in for sailing? (have as a hobby)

 

 

Grow out of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Julie has grown out of playing with dolls. (become too old for)

 

Keep up with*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You're going too fast! I can't keep up with you! (stay in the same place as)

 

Look down on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Our neighbours look down on anyone without a car. (feel superior to)

 

Look up to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/ really look up to my

teacher.

(respect)

 

 

 

 

Look forward to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We are looking forward to our

holiday. (think we will enjoy)

 

Make up for

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This wonderful dinner made up for the bad

 

service.

(compensate for)

 

Put up with

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I can't put up with these screaming children!

 

(accept without complaining)

 

Run out of*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oh dear, we've run out of petrol! (have no more of)

 

Stand up for

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You must learn to stand up for yourself! (defend)

 

Verbs with one

These phrasal verbs take an object, and the object must come after the particle.

particle: transitive

It cannot go between the verb and the particle.

 

 

 

and inseparable

I love coffee. I can't do without it in

the morning!

(NOT do it without)

151

FIRST CERTIFICATE LANGUAGE PRACTICE

Ask

after

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jim asked after you yesterday.

(ask for news of)

Call

for

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I'll call for you at six.

(come to your house and collect you)

Call on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I called on some friends in

Plymouth.

 

(visit

for a short time)

Come across

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joe came across this old painting in the

attic.

(find by chance)

Come into

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sue came into a large sum of money.

(inherit)

Count on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I'm counting on you to help me. (depend on)

Deal with

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How can we deal with the

traffic problem?

(take action to solve a problem)

Do without

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We'll have to do without a holiday this

year.

(manage without having)

Get at

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What are you getting at?

(suggest)

 

 

 

Get over

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barry has got over his illness now. (recover from)

Go over

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Let's go over our plan once

more.

(discuss the details)

Join in

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Try to join in the lesson as much as you can. (take part in, contribute to)

Live on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

They live on the money her father gives

them.

(have as income)

Look into

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The government is looking into the

problem.

(investigate)

Look round

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Let's look round the town

today.

(look at everything)

Make for

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Where are you making for exactly?

 

(go in the direction of)

Pick on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

My teacher is always picking on me.

 

(choose a person to punish)

Run into

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I ran into Steve in the supermarket

yesterdayю

(meet by chance)

See about

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Well have to see about getting you an

officeю

(make arrangements)

See to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Can you see to the dog's food? (attend to, take care of)

Stand for

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I won't stand for such rudeness! (tolerate)

 

 

Andrew is standing for

parliament. (be a candidate for)

Take

after

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Helen takes after her

mother.

(have

the same characteristics as)

152

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