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2. A 30-'!

# 1;! % # :2!/& 20- 2%:# 4%:%2 &&% 42-&'*! + 4 2% " +:%/. @: (61 =(*% :!-!&%, &! :2!/& -! 124#*# # 1;( % #, ':! :*!4!*! + - 1;#2 5&%/ D:%*# 4 %$ :%&,1& 2 (1-A% – 5% #2# 2%:# &! 5!&&', 2-A% – 2#) " )2%FD:%*#. ,1" 5! ( % / :*!*! ' !:! # 1;! % #: )%5! :% ! D:%*! ( () &+) – 4 2%:# &! 5!&&'; 1;#2 5&! D:%*! ': F(&4!;1& L/ D: *+&%/ # 1;#; D:%*! ()1&' (41 '' #2 5&! 1214&' D:%*!); F!=2#5&%--! %4 +: 1;#2 5:#; D:%*# 1*'& +:%/ ;%*%4 ; D:%*# F!=2#5&%--! %4 +:%A% (5& !; 2%= #" F!:(*+ 1 .

1214#& 20-$ 2%: (2'4 !4'& +:%/ % / 2 D(51 -; &GL %G !: #:( C%4% &D#$ 2!4'& +:#$ 21 )(=* :. : & 1930 2. &! 1 %G-& " )!2 "& " &!2!4 &!2:%; % # :2!/ . :2#): # ()# - )2%)%-#, LG (& F :!, / # 1;# &!2%4&%/ % # , %=b2(& % (G5# ,1 #;, C% “,+%A% #;!A!L L4#" )*!& A% )%4!2 +:%/ )121=(4% # ”. !:#; 5#&%;, )% ()% % F%2;% !" &!)2#: &, 20-$ 2%: % !* !2" 216#; * : 4( ! (:2!/& +:( % &G )1,#F :( 2!;:!$ -!A!*+&% %G-&%/ (& F :!, / # 1;# % #. 2# ,+%;( -! -21,+ =(*% -' %, -#5!"&%, 2% " +:( # 1;( &!2%4&%/ % #.

!:#; -; &!; !:%6 )2#'*# )% !&% # (=) )2% %2A!&-!, G -;

2%=% # 2!4'& +:%/ D:%*#. 5 121 &' 1931 2%:( (=) )2#"&' )% !&% ( “ B -= 9”, ': " -%=% ''-! &!2:%;% # 21 )(=* : &1A!"&%

2%-)%5! # 2%=% ( )% :*!4!&&G &% #$ &! 5!*+$ )*!& )2%A2!;, C% -!=1-)15#*# = -! %L&&' (5&';# % &% &!(: 4)% 4!*# = -! 4!&&'; )%* 1$& 5&%A% &! 5!&&', ':1 )% #&&% -4 " &G ! # + &! % &% %)!&( !&&' (5&';# -!A!*+&%% &$ 4# ,#)* &, -''-:( 1%2 / - )2!: #:%G, # 51&&' % &% #2%=, !.

165

1 4%- ) *' , L/ )% !&% # =(*# -! 12461& &% &! 5!*+& )*!, )%=(4% !& &! % &% )214;1 &%A% #:*!4!&&', 141& &% )2%A2!;# - % &% $

&! 5!*+$ )214;1 , ':#$ C1 =(*% =!A! % 12"%-$ &14%* : .

25 12)&' 1932 2%:( (=) )2#"&' )% !&% ( “ -B- *D * B : -: 9”. !&%G )% !&% %G =(*% -! (461&%

:%;)*1: &( # 1;( &! 5!&&', =2#A!4&%-*!=%2! %2" ;1 %4, ;1 %4 “, *#$ * ” ( &! 5!&& A2!;% #, &14%%, &:( :*! &%-(2%5&%/ # 1;# &! 5!&&'. #;!A!*% +, C%= % &% &%G F%2;%G &! 5!*+&%/ 2%=% # ! (2%: - !*#; :*!4%; (5& != *+ 2%-:*!4%;; )2# &! 5!&& )% #&1& #:%2# % ( ! # + # 1;! #5" #:*!4 (5# 1*1; ;! 12 !*(, !;% "& ! *!=%2! %2& 2%=% #, 1: :(2 /. )% !&% 4! !*# + )2#&,#)% :!-:# C%4% %=* :( -&!&+ (5& . 1:%;1&4( !*% + )2% %4# # &4# 4(!*+" # 1;! #5" %=* : -&!&+.

(=) 21:%;1&4( ! !2:%;% ( )1212%=# # &! 5!*+& )2%A2!;# 4% 1 5&' 1933 2%:( 4*' %A%, C%= -!=1-)15# # “4 " &% ; ,&1 # 1;! #5&1 -! %L&&' 4 +;# % &% &!(:.”

@: (61 -!-&!5!*% +, ( 20- 2%:# &! :2!/& 4=( ! ' & 1& # " 2%-# %: )14%*%A /. (=) )% !&% 4 4 *#)&' 1936 2%:( “ B- B-- * ! * ” #:2# )14%*%A G D: 4*# ( 4 '*+& +

)14%*%A , :!-! , C% % =!-(G + ' &! !& #&!(:% #$, !& #;!2: # +:#$ )%*%61&&'$. ! (4# D# )14%*%A 5& )121:2(51&&', (=) %/" )% !&% #;!A! “ 4&% # # )% & G )2! !$ )14!A%A :( )14!A%A ”, :!-! &! &1%=$4& + 2%-# :( ;!2: # +:%/ &!(:# )2% 4 1".

61, 1936 2%:%; 4! (L + ' % !&&' -A!4:! )2% )14%*%A G. %&! -:!L - )14!A%A 5&%A% &1=%$#*(, ! 2!-%; - &1G )2#)#&'G + ' =(4+-': # 51&&' :% #$ ! &4# 4(!*+$ % %=*# % 1" 4 1" -!A!* .

3. < ( 40–50-'! )

1)2% #)2%=( !&&' )2%"D*! 5#-&'&! D:%*! 2%:# 42(A%/ % %/ ".!;%A% )%5! :( " 41 ' :# # '5 5# 1* (5& !2D#$ :*! 4%=2% *+&% ) D*# &! F2%& - -=2%LG 2(:!$ -!$#C! # 5#-&(.

'6:#$ (;% !$ %L&&%A% 5! ( )%5!*! ' ) 4A% % :! 4% )%5! :( 1941/42 &.2. 1- A% 121 &' 1941 2%:( )%5!*# + -!&' ' 2!"%&!$ :2!/, ': &1 =(*# %:()% !& (41': 2- %&=! (, 41 !, 1 ! %)%*+, 41': 2!"% 12& A +:%/ (; +:%/ %=*! 1"). 5& D: * :2!/, ': 1 !:(G !*# ' &! $4, )%5!*# 1941/42 &.2. (

D:%*!$ &D#$ 21 )(=* : – % /, (2:;1& /, !-!$!& , 2(-/.

23 5&' 1942 2%:( #$%4# + % !&% ! !4&!2:%;( “ + 0 > > + > +- = :”. 2# %=*! $ :2!"% #$ #:%&:%;!$

%2G !*# + :%; / 4*' =%2% +=# - =1-)2# (*+& G, )2# (*:# 2%-)%4 *+:# 4*' 4 1"-#2 =1-)2# (*+$, 4# '5 =(4#&:#. *' ) 4* : , ': 2%:# " -!*#D#*# &! 5!&&' ) D*# )2!,G ! #, 1943 2%, =(*# %21& 15 2& D:%*#.

1943 2%:( )%5!*% + 4&% *1&&' 2%=% # D: * 2!"%&!$ :2!/, #-%*1$

4 %:()!& . 31 A2(4&' 1943 2%:( !4&!2:%; )2#"&' )% !&% ( “-+ ; = > : * 715 -= +- --* +- > ' + +- -B-- ”. 31 121 &' 1944 2%:( &!

)121 !6& " = *+D% 12# %2 / :2!/ 4&% #*! + 2%=% ! D: *. 1943/44 &.2. &! :2!/& =(*% 12802 D:%*#, ':#$ &! 5!*% + 1770179 (5& . 1944/45 &.2. =(*% -!)2% !461&% %=% ''-:% 1 &! 5!&&' 4 1" ( D:%*!$, )%5#&!G5# - 1;#2 5&%A% :(,

C% )2#'*% * : 4!, / 2%-2# ( ; 6 4%D: *+# ( !&% !;# D:%*%G. 12)& 1943 2%:( =(*# )2#"&' “ B- ”, ':#$ #-&!5!*# + /$ %=% ''-:#

166

)2! #*! )% 14 &:#. 1943/44 &.2. D:%*!$ =(*% -!)2% !461&% ,#F2% ( )'' #=!*+&(

# 1;( %, &:# ( ) D&% ! )% 14 &:# (5& .

21 512 &' 1944 2%:( !4&!2:%; )2#"&' )% !&% ( “ + 0 9-- -B-- 9”, -A 4&% - ':%G 4*' (5& , ': -!: &5#*#

)%5! :% 1;#2 5& D:%*#, %4#*# + #)( :& 1:-!;1, ! !:%6 1:-!;1 &! ! 1 ! -2 *% 4*' #$ (5& , ': -!: &5#*# 1214&G D:%*(. LG )% !&% %G !:%6 =(*% -!)2% !461&% &!A%2%461&&' #)( :: 1214&+%/ D:%*# -%*% #;# 2 =# ;14!*';#.

*' -!: &51&&' " :2!/& 2%-)%5!*! ' 4=(4% ! &!2%4&%A% A% )%4!2 !, 4&% *1&&' 2%=% # -!A!*+&%% &+%/ D:%*#. 1949 2%, =(*% -!)2% !461&% %=% ''-:% 1 -!A!*+&1 1;#2 5&1 &! 5!&&'. 1956 2%, =( %21" &% #" #) D:%*# – D:%*!-& 12&! , :(4# )2#";!*# + 4 # %4#&%:#$ ;! 12 , & !* 4 , #2% #.

12$% &! !4! 24 A2(4&' 1958 2%:( )2#"&'*! -!:%& “ +* ;- -- + ' + 9 + D * 9 : + * ”.

!:%&%; -!)2% !46( !*! + -!A!*+&! %=% ''-:% ! % +;#2 5&! % !. A 4&% - ,#; -!:%&%; !&% *1&% &% ( # 1;( D: *+&%/ % #: -!A!*+&! %=% ''-:% ! % +;#2 5&! D:%*! 4*' 4 1" :%; 4 7 4% 15–16 2%: ; )% &! 1214&' 4*' ) 4* :;%*%4 15–18-2 5&%A% :( ( 41&& 1214& D:%*#, 15 2& /-; && / " -!%5& 1214& D:%*# )2!,GG5%/ ;%*%4 ); D:%*#-& 12&! #, )1, !*+& D:%*#-& 12&! # 4*' 4 1" - !4!;# F-#5&%A% 2%-(;% %A% 2%-# :(; 1$& :(;# ! &D 1214& #C &! 5!*+& -!:*!4#.

%*% )121=(4% # 1;# &!2%4&%/ % # =(*% )%L4&!&&' &! 5!&&' - )2%4(: # &%G )2!,1G. 15–16 2%: ' ;%*%4+ )% #&&! =(*! :*G5! # ' )% #*+&( ( ) *+&%-:%2# &( )2!,G.

4. 60-'!

!6*# #; -! 4!&&'; ( A!*(- &!2%4&%/ % # ( 60- 2%:# =(*% -4 " &1&&' :2!/& -!A!*+&%/ %=% ''-:% %/ 1214&+%/ % #, )121$4 D:%*# &! &% #" -; % #, (4% :%&!*1&&' &! 5!*+&%A% )2%,1 ( #$% !&&' (5& .

2%,1 141&&' -!A!*+&%/ %=% ''-:% %/ 1214&+%/ % # #2 D1&% =(*% -4 " # : *+:! 1 !) . , LG ;1 %G 1& 2!*+" %; 1 )!2 / !4! & 2)2#"&'*# 2'4 )% !&% .

% !&% %G !4# & 2 4 10 12)&' 1964 2. “ +*- *- -B-- -0 +- -0 0 0-B-0 9 0 + >-B * -B--* =(*% !&% *1&% -!; + 3-2 5&%A%2-2 5" 12; &

&! 5!&&' 1214& " D:%* &! =!- 8-A% :*! (.

I:%*! -&% ( 6 ! !*! 10-2 5&%G. 2#5#&!;# 4$%4( 4 11-2 5&%/ D:%*# =(*#: )12D! 41;%A2!F 5&! :2#-! (D:%*( -!: &5( !*# 4 # ", ':#$ =(*% ;!*%, %;( 2#;! # ;%*%4+ -!" #" 2 : D:%* =(*% &1 #)2! 4!&%); &1-&!5" )2%,1& #)( :: 11-$ :*! "D% ( #2%=, % -! % 2#;! F!$%;; *!=:! ;! 12 !*+&%-1$& 5&! =!-! #2%=%A% &! 5!&&'; ( =!A! +%$ D:%*!$ #2%=3 &! 5!&&' &1 =(*% %2A!& 5&% )% ''-!&1 - # 51&&'; % &% &!(:. -''-:( - ,#;, ( 1966 2. “F- 9” =(*% &1 1&% 5! :% -; , ( 4)% 4&% - ':#;# :! % !&% %=% ''-:% ( )2%F1 "&( ) 4A% % :( -!A!*+&%% &$ D:%*!$.

10 *# %)!4! 1966 2%:( !4! & 2 )2#"&'*# )% !&% ( “ + 0 9 - -- > -/ +- -/ 9”.

!" !6*# D#; -! 4!&&'; A!*(- &!2%4&%/ % # )% !&% ! !6!*! -4 " &1&&', % &% &%;( 4% 1970 2., ( :2!/& -!A!*+&%/ %=% ''-:% %/ 1214&+%/ % # 4*' ) 42% !G5%A% )%:%* &&'.

167

, 2%:# 1214 5# 1* D: * )2!, : %2A!& &!2%4&%/ % # #4 *'L + ' =!A! % 1& (-! , 4%=2#$ %2A!&-! %2 , )2! 6&$ ;!" 2 )14!A%A 5&%/ )2! #.

! -!-&!51" )12 %4 )2#)!4!L 4 '*+& + #4! &%A% (:2!/& +:%A% )14!A%A! ! #*' *1: !&42% #5! ($%;*#& +:%A%. %A% 1%21 #5& # &% :#, 4% * 461&&', % %=# #" 4% 4 2%=% # - 4 +;#, * 12! (2&! )!4C#&! L =1-, & :*!4%; ( 5#-&'&( )14!A%A 5&( &!(:(.

5. B (70–80 )

1970 2%, =( )2#"&' #" &% #" ! ( 1214&+%/ -!A!*+&%% &+%/ D:%*#. ! % &% ,+%A% 4126! &%A% 4%:(;1& ( #)( ::# % +;#2 5$ D: * ;%A*# )2%4% 6# # % ( -!A!*+&%% &$ )% $ 1214&$ (41 ' #2 5$) D:%*!$ (9–10 :*! #), 1214&$ )1, !*+$ &! 5!*+$ -!:*!4!$ – 1$& :(;!$ (3–4 2%:# &! 5!&&'), ! !:%6 D:%*!$ 2%= %/ 1*'& +:%/ ;%*%4 (9–11 :*! #). , &! 5!*+& -!:*!4# 4! !*# )% &( 1214&G % ( ! 1 ! -2 *% .

!6!*% +, C% !:#; 5#&%; =(41 #2 D1&! )2%=*1;! %4126!&&' )% &%/

1214&+%/ % # )%L4&!&& - )2%F1 "&%G ) 4A% % :%G ;%*%4 4% )2!, .

20 512 &' 1972 2%:( =(*% )2#"&' % )% !&% ( “ + 9-- 0 +-/ -/ * 9 : + +- -/ 9”.

1214 %2A!&!;# &!2%4&%/ % # # ( !*% + -! 4!&&' -! 12D# # 4% 1975 2%:( -4 " &1&&' 1214&+%A% 1%=(5(, )121$%4( &! &% &! 5!*+& )*! )2%A2!;#.

I:%*! %2 L& ( !*! + &! %21&&' :!= &1 &%/ # 1;# &! 5!&&', 1F1: # &1 #:%2# !&&' , : &%, 2!4 % 1*1=!51&&'. ;1 %G #;(*G !&&' )% "&%A% 2% ( : !* F :!, /, )14!A%A 5&%/ ;!" 12&% %25%/ & , ! # # #:*!4!,+:#$ :!42 -!)2% !46( !*! + ! 1 !, ' (5# 1* . ! 21-(*+ ! !;# ! 1 !, / 5# 1*';, ':

&!"= *+D ( ) D&% )2!,G !*#, )2# %G !*# + -!&&' “ 9 : B”, “B-* ”.

)% !&% !4# & 2 “ 9 J-- -B--, 0-- B- +- -0 9 /0 ;” 4 22 A2(4&' 1977

2%:( :!-( !*% ', C% D:%*! -%=% ''-!&! 4%)%;%A # (5&'; % %*%4 # A*#=%:#;# -&!&&';# % &% &!(: 2(4% #;# &! #5:!;#. % !&% ! ) 4:21 *G !*! !6*# + L4&% &! 5!&&' #$% !&&', &%A% -!L;%-’'-:( 2%-(;% %A%, 2(4% %A% ;%2!*+&%A% #$% !&&', ! !:%6 )%L4&!&&' &! 5!&&' - (5! G ( #2%= " )2!, .

%=*# ! ( !A! )2#4 *'*! + )# !&&'; -; ( ;1 %4!; &! 5!&&', (4% :%&!*1&&G &! 5!*+&%-#$% &%A% )2%,1 (, )%-!:*! &%/ )%-!D: *+&%/ 2%=% #, ':! )% #&&! 2!$% ( ! # & 121 # =!6!&&' D:%*'2 .

4&%5! &% - 4!&%G )% !&% %G =(*! )2#"&' ! )% !&% ! )2% =1-)*! &1 :%2# ( !&&' ) 42(5:!;# )2% %21&&' D: *+$ = =* % 15$ F%&4 ) 42(5: .

! 6!*+, #C1-A!4!& )% !&% # &1 )2!,G !*#, 2!4'& +:! *!4! )% ()% %$%4#*! :2#-% #" )12 %4, ) 44! !*! + “-! "” )*# !;, $!2!: 12 4*' +%A% ( ) *+ !. 1984 2. =(*! -2%=*1&! )2%=! # 1 # D:%*( - :2#-#, &!:21 *1&% -!$%4# )% )2% 141&&G 21F%2;# -!A!*+&%% &+%/ )2%F1 "&%/ D:%*#, ':! ;!*! &! ;1 )%4%*!&&' &!' $ &14%* : # 1; % #, -; ;1 %4!$ &! 5!&&' #$% !&&'.

$% !

1.%2 &'*+" !&!*- -!A!*+&%/ % # M (20- 2%:#).

2.14%*%A ' ': &!(:! )2% 4# #&(.

3.!2!: 12# #:! &% #$ ;1 %4 &! 5!&&' (60- 2%:#).

4.2(4% 1 &! 5!&&' D:%*'2 (21 2% )1: # ! 20–80-$ 2%: ).

% % $ $%

168

1. 121 !A# ! &14%* :# :%;)*1: &%/ # 1;# &! 5!&&' (20- 2%:#).

2. %;( 4% 4 4 '*+&% % 20-$ 2%: . (= 1*+" &!-# !L 1 !)%; “:%;(& #5&%A% &!, %&!*+&%A% 42%461&&'”?

3. % 14 +, C% ( 60- 2%:# 4% # + 45( &%G L 1&41&, ' )%6 ! *1&&' 4 '*+&% ( A!*(- % #.

4. 5%;( ( 70–80 2%:!$ D:%*! &!=( !L %-&!: -! %G?

1.&% &%G *!&:%G % &+%/ # 1;# :2!/& , )%5#&!G5# - 1920 2., =(*!: ) C- 9 ; >) B : >-; ) 9 - -.

2.%;)*1: &! # 1;! &! 5!&&' – ,1: ) +-: *-- : + = -* J *; >) -+- -B--, - ' +- + +-= -= > =, > + C - -* > -= +-,-* -- -B- B ; ) * -B--, + = B- -> = *- -B ; - -- : -- B-0 +- -.

3.14%*%A ' – ,1: ) - -; >) - 0--; ) - + 0--, 9 B-0 : +- B- .

4.& F :!, ' # 1;# &!2%4&%/ % # =(*! -!:2 )*1&!: ) “ ; C= ;- 0-- :”; >) -= )# # (>) “ -B- *

D * B : -: 9 ”; ) F-* “ +* ;- -- + ' + 9 + D * 9 : + * - -/ ”.

169

.

1.L B- - . 0 *- .

2.! B-- : 0-- : 6-B-

3.. 0 *- : < *-- *--/ > (- 9).

4.- - 0-- 9 (! D-- *- - ).

5.-B- + -- 0-- (“ ”).

6./ - -- B-0 (B =, +* + * * * 9).

' :

1.($%;*#& +:#" . . #=2. .: 5-# . – . –5. – .: !4.D:, !976–1977.

2.-1 12 & . #4! " 2!4'& +:#" )14!A%A. – :&.: ($%;*#& +:#" . . #=2. . 5-# . . . – .: !4.D:, 1976.

3.($%;*#& +:#" . . =* %A2!F ' %2 / (). . .3. ;!*'. %:. )2. :*!*# . . !

. . ($%;*#& +:!. – .: !4.D:, 1978.

4.1 : +:#" . . 1 %4#5& 21:%;1&4!, / - #:%2# !&&' %25%/ )!4C# . . ($%;*#& +:%A%. – J# %;#2,1980.

5.2! 1,+ . . %2 ' (:2!/& +:%/ D:%*# )14!A%A :#: (2 *1:, ". – 12&%) *+, 1994.

6.

%2 ' )14!A%A :# /-! 214. . . 1 : :+%A%, . . (=! 1&G:/. – J# %;#2, 2003.

7.

G=!2 . . ! &. %2 ' (:2!/& +:%/ )14!A%A :# /-! 214. . . 1*+;!$% #5!. – .:

 

, 2000.

8.=2(L ! . ., # &! . S. %2 ' )14!A%A :# ( $1;!$, :!2 !$, 4 !A2!;!$: ! 5!*+" )% =:. – (;#: (; , 2000.

(')*+ '+ , , /0 2

' , “ ”, “ ”,, .

.

# > < B- -.

& + H & &!2%4# ' 28 121 &' 1918 2%:( . ! #* :! &(F2 / +:%A% 2!"%&( 2% %A2!4 +:%/ %=*! ( &1-!;%6& " 2%4#& . ! 5! ' ($%;*#& +:#" ( ! #* +: " 1;#2 5, (1926–1933).

* :( 1934 2. & 2%-)%5! &! 5!&&' ( 21;1&5(,+:%;( )14!A%A 5&%;( & # ( , )2% 1 5121- $%2%=( ;( # -!*#D# # &! 5!&&'. 1935 2%:( )2!,G ! 5# 1*1; (:2!/& +:%/ ;% # " * 12! (2# ( D:%*!$ &(F2 / +:%A% 2!"%&(. 1936– 1938 2.2. &! 5! ' &! -!%5&%;( 44 * %* ! +:%A% )14!A%A 5&%A% & # ( (, 41 -4%=( : !* F :!, G 5# 1*' (:2!/& +:%/ ;% # ! * 12! (2#. 1938 2%:( 4% )%5! :( 1*#:%/ 5#-&'&%/ " ($%;*#& +:#" )2!,GL 5# 1*1; (:2!/& +:%/ ;% # " * 12! (2# -! 4(G5#; &! 5!*+&%G 5! #&%G &(F2 / +:%/ 1214&+%/ D:%*#.

*#)& 1941 2%:( & =( )2#-!" 4% *! 12 %&%/ 2; /.

9.02.1942 2%:( =%G ) 4 61 %; =( '6:% )%2!&1" )%&!4 5% #2# ; ', * :( ! ' 1 !:%D)# !*'$. 512 &' 1942 2%:( )% =121-1&+ 1944 2%:(

170