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17. Work in pairs Discuss these questions: These words and phrases are sure to help you to express your idea.

Manuscripts that were written centuries ago; collections of portraits painted by world known artists;

Belarusian decorations of the time of –; mosaic works; objects in ivory bone; objects in glass and pottery; national embroidery of the Belarusian peasantry; clay pots decorated with ornaments;

stone images of ancient gods; fur, felt and cloth garments, headwear and footwear of the 16 century.

- What are the important museums or galleries in your city (or a city you know well)?

- What makes them attractive to tourists? Which would you recommend, and why?

18. Match the following genres of painting with their definitions:

1. a landscape

a) a painting of such unanimated subjects as fruit, flowers and other decorative things;

2. a portrait

b) a picture on a wall or ceiling where a plast is still wet or damp;

3. a still life

c) a picture or representation of the person, especially of a face generally drawn from life;

4. a fresco

d) a painting of the sea

5. a seascape

e) a picture representing a tract of country with the various objects it contains.

19. Examine the picture by Rembrandt “Baertje Martens”(c, see on page35) and arrange the sentences to restore its description according to the plan given below

  1. The general effect. (The title and the name of the artist. The period or trend represented. Does it appear natural and spontaneous or contrived and artificial?)

  2. The contents of the picture. (Place, time and setting. The accessories, the dress and environment. Any attempt to render the emotions of the model. What does the artist accentuate in his subject?)

  3. The composition and colouring. (How is the sitter represented? Against what background? Any prevailing format? Is the picture bold or rigid? Do the hands (head, body) look natural and informal? How do the eyes gaze? Does the painter concentrate on the analysis of details? What tints predominate in the colour scheme? Do the colours blend imperceptible? Are the brushstrokes left visible?)

  4. Interpretation and evaluation. (Does it exemplify a high degree of artistic skill? What feelings or ideas does it evoke in the viewer?)

Remarkable in its painterly qualities, the portrait of Baertje Martens holds a special place in the Rembrandt collection at the Hermitage.

Baertje Martens (1596-1678), born in Naarden, not far from Amsterdam, married Herman Doomer (1595-1654) in 1618. They had seven children; one son, Lambert Doomer, studied in Rembrandt’s studio in the early 1640s and later was known as a talented artist.

Baertje Martens would be turning forty-four at the time the portrait was painted.

Subtle changes of light and shadow give it an amazing vitality and naturalness.

Rembrandt uses a characteristic manner in depicting her eyes: the lower and upper lids are shaded with a warm pink halftone, giving the gaze special moisture.

The woman’s gaze directed at the viewer and the shy smile touching the corners of her lips are astonishingly relaxed.

The model’s pose is stable and static, but the expression of her face is filled with inner mutability.

The shades of color of the skin on the face and hands are presented with rare conviction. (Rembrandt’s contemporaries praised him for this feature of his painting.)

She is depicted almost frontally, seated in an armchair with a high back.

The light falling from the left softly illuminates her face, the broad round collar, and her clasped hands.

The artist avoids linear elements, softening the contours with halftones.

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