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36 Ситуации для высказывания.

а) У вас аналитический склад ума. Вас интересуют чисто научные проблемы. Скажите, можете ли вы заниматься научными исследованиями в институте. Каким образом?

б) Вы заканчивает машиностроительный институт. Скажите, в какой области (исследований, проектирования, на производстве) вы собираетесь работать. Где? Чем конкретно вы будете заниматься?

в) Вы инженер-технолог, работающий на машиностроительном заводе. Назовите свои основные обязанности.

U N I T I I

MACHINE-BUILDING INDUSTRY

WARMING-UP

1 Прочитайте диалог и запомните название инструментов и станков, выделенные жирным шрифтом.

Alex. Hello, Paul! Glad to see you. Where have you been? I was looking for you all day yesterday. But unfortunately, I didn’t find you.

Paul. You know, our lessons had been finished by five o’clock yesterday and I went to our Exhibition Hall and saw different types of machine tools there, such as lathes, milling machines and grinding machines.

Alex. That sounds interesting. It’s impossible to imagine a workshop today that is not equipped with multi-purpose machine tools.

Paul. I can’t but agree with you. People have already fully automated all transportation operations.

Alex. And were there any interesting types of machine tools at the Exhibition, I wonder?

Paul. Oh, definitely, the latest developments in the design of machine tools were well represented there. And as far as I know, some of these types will have been put into operation by the end of the next year.

Alex. And what impressed you most of all at the Exhibition?

Paul. Well, you know, there was one fantastic machine known as the “machining centre”. This machine performs about a hundred different operations simultaneously.

2 Закончите диалоги.

1 A. ……..

B. Well, you see, I went to the machine tool works yesterday.

A. ……..

2 A. What types of machine tools did you see at the Exhibition?

B. ……...

A. Which one did you like most?

B. ……...

A. Will any of these new machine tools have been put into operation by the end of the year?

B. ……..

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

automation 1.автоматика

2.автоматизация

calculation вычисление, подсчет, расчет

to trace проследить, отслеживать

to install устанавливать, монтировать, собирать

motion 1.движение, перемещение, ход

2.механизм

to classify классифицировать

to take into account принимать во внимание

turbine турбина

pump насос, помпа

compressor компрессор

diverse разнообразный, различный

machine-tool станок, металлорежущий станок

mechanism механизм, устройство, прибор, аппарат

to generate производить, генерировать

steam boiler паровой котел

to ventilate 1.вентилировать

2.снабжать клапаном

reliability надежность, прочность

to identify идентифицировать, определять

to cast(cast,cast) лить, отливать( металл)

vulnerable уязвимый, ранимый

to treat 1.обрабатывать, подвергать обработке

2.пропитывать

harvester уборочная машина

requirement требование

ingenious изобретательный, искусный

friction трение, сила трения

to be engaged in быть вовлеченным в, заниматься чем-либо

sufficient достаточный

accurate точный, правильный, тщательный

to detect faults обнаружить неполадки

density плотность, густота

to slow down замедлять

automatically автоматически

3 а) В первом абзаце текста подчеркивается, что современные машины подвергаются огромным напряжениям выполняют сложные движения. В то же время автомобильный двигатель назван «простой машиной». Какое отношение между первым и вторым положениями этого абзаца?

б) Основная часть текста посвящена классификации основных отраслей техники, специалистов, работающих в каждой из этих областей, и перечислению основных изделий промышленности. Назовите абзацы и предложения текста, которые относятся непосредственно к машиностроению.

TEXT 2A

Engineering

Today machines have to withstand such tremendous stresses and to be able of such complex motions that complicated and specialized calcu­lations taking hundreds of factors into account are needed in the design of even quite a simple machine like a motor-car engine.

So, as engineering progresses, engineers must become ever more scientific and specialized. Today the branches of engineering are so wide that it is impossible to classify them satisfactorily. The main divisions of engineering may be listed as follows:

1 Mechanical engineering.

Steam engines, internal combustion engines, turbines (steam, gas, water), pumps; compressors; machine-tools; mechanisms.

2 Electrical engineering.

a) Power: generators; motors; transformers;

transmission(power lines and so on).

b) Electronics: radio, radar, television

3 Civil engineering.

Dams; tunnels; roads; and so on.

4 Structural engineering.

The structural details of all large buildings and bridges.

5 Chemical engineering.

Mechanical engineering has been recognized as a separate branch of engineering since the formation of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers of Great Britain in 1847. The development of the textile machinery, steam engines, machine-tools, pumping machinery, turbines and locomotives of that time made such a diversity interest for civilian engineers that these and allied subjects were called mechanical engineering. Mechanical engineering deals with the design, construction and operation of machines and devices of all kinds, and with research and sciences upon which these depend. Among these machines are prime movers such as engines and turbines using air, gas, steam and water as operating media; pumping machines and other hydraulic apparatus; steam boilers, heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigerating equipment, transportation structures used in aviation; automotive engineering, railroads and ships, machine-tools, special machines for industry and for construction of buildings, railroads and harbors. In fact, mechanical engineering enters into the work of all engineers whose machines are to be developed for the processes of specialists of the other branches of engineering