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engl_posob / Титова А.А. Мех 3 курсUNIT I.doc
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35 Переведите на английский язык.

1 Многие автомобили имеют двигатели, работающие на бензине.

2 Ты случайно не знаешь, сколько свечей зажигания в этом двигателе?

3 Мне кажется, что только некоторые автомобили имеют газовые двигатели.

4 Есть ли двигатели со смешенным видом топлива? - Я точ­но не знаю.

5 Немногие грузовики имеют четырехтактные двигатели.

6 Большинство двигателей находятся в передней части автомо­биля.

7 Очень мало автомобилей имеют двигатели посередине.

8 Многие мотоциклы имеют двухтактные двигатели, не так ли?

36 Заполните пропуски в следующих предложениях, выбрав один из предлагае­мых вариантов.

  1. The engine, used in a standard gasoline car, is called internal combustion engine because the combustion and movement produced take place inside the ... (cycle, cylinder, turbine).

  2. The ... (sparkplug, crankshaft, piston) moves up and down in the combustion chamber during a 4-stroke cycle.

  3. The ... (spark plugs, fuel pump, fuel pipe) ignite the fuel mixture producing high pressure.

  4. The ... (exhaust, expanding, compressing) gases force the piston downward.

  5. Combustion is the process by which things ... (burn, mix, rotate).

  6. Three things are required for combustion: air, ... (carbon, alloy, fuel), an ignition source.

  7. All the internal combustion engines breathe air, burn fuel, and produce mechanical... (flow, power, temperature) and also exhaust gases.

  8. Cold forging is either impression die forging or closed die forging with ... (dies, impression, titanium) and metal at room temperature.

  9. The electric arc furnace is the most widely used type of electric furnace for the production of quality ... (effort, alloy, electric) steels.

10.Small resistance furnaces are widely used in laboratories and in shops for the heat... (movement, treatment, operation) of tools.


37 Подготовьте краткие сообщения на следующие темы:

а) Путь следования топлива в топливной системе д. в. с.

б) Рабочие процессы, происходящие в цилиндре двигателя, во время рабочегохода.

в) Четырехтактный цикл.

Supplementary texts


Text 1

Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его.

Leeds University has a century-old tradition of teaching and re­search in mechanical engineering and its degrees are recognized the world over. Mechanical engineering is concerned with mechanisms, machines and energy conversions and is perhaps the most general of the engineering disciplines.

Modern mechanical engineering is interesting and diverse. It covers all manners of energy utilization with minimal pollution of the en­vironment. It covers transport, machinery and manufacture and the efficient use of mechanisms without excessive vibrations and stresses. It covers materials and measurement and the research, economic, social and management dimensions that support its activity. All these aspects are coordinated through design and information technology. The result is an attractive diversity of the profession and a wide demand for its graduates.

A University programme in Mechanical Engineering equips the student with the basic skills of engineering: how to absorb and evaluate the experience of others, an understanding of the fundamental principles, and an appreciation of modern theoretical techniques. Above all, it helps the student to think in a certain logical way.

The School of Mechanical Engineering offers a three year BEng (Hons) and a four year MEng programme in Mechanical Engineering. The degree schemes are structured so that the first two years contain common modules, covering the fundamental materials for practicing engineers and students do not need to make a final decision as to which scheme to follow until the end of year two. The core modules encompass

solid mechanics




manufacture and computing,

with supporting courses in mathematics and electronics, as well as an introduction to the role of the engineer in business and the social environment.

The final years of the programme provide a great deal of flexibility, allowing you to specialize in those subjects which most interest you. The final years of both schemes offer thirty options from which students choose five or seven subjects. These options include vehicle dynamics, aerodynamics, energy, analysis of manufacturing pro­cesses, bio-mechanical engineering, noise and vibration control, social and industrial psychology. The courses consist of formal lectures reinforced by tutorials, laboratory classes and projects, and practical design and computing work. Project work takes the form of assignment which a qualified engineer might be given. The project in the fourth year of the MEng course involves co-operation with industrial en­gineers.

а) Опираясь на информацию текста, расскажите о курсах обучения на факульте­те,

б) Перечислите основные и факультативные дисциплины, изучаемые на факультете.

Text 2

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

What Is a Polytechnic?

Polytechnics were established by the government in 1966 in order to concentrate in major colleges the large amount of work of university standard being done outside the university.

In many ways the polytechnics and universities are similar; for example, in much of the work they do. However, there are two important differences. Firstly, universities are autonomous bodies. Secondly, universities, being autonomous, award their own degrees. Most degrees in polytechnics are awarded by a national body called the Council for National Academic Awards. The Council ensures that the degrees awarded in polytechnics are comparable in standard to degrees awarded by universities.

Polytechnics are teaching institutes. They have more varied courses than any other higher educational institute. They provide courses for various levels from post GCE "A"-level to post-graduate level. Courses are also of various patterns: full-time, part-time and sand­wich. The student has therefore, a wide range of choice, such as a pure academic study, a study of an applied nature or a professional quali­fication.

About two-thirds of Polytechnic graduates get qualifications in subjects of an applied nature and take their first jobs in the field for which they have studied.

Polytechnics have close links with commerce and industry. Many of them are vocational, that is, prepare students for technical jobs. They produce technologists, technicians and craftsmen. At a polytechnic, as at a university, students come from different backgrounds, have diverse interests and follow a variety of courses. Students' life at a polytechnic is interesting and varied, socially, as well as educationally.

Polytechnics play a main role in higher education.

а) Прочитайте следующую справку.

In 1966 a new form of higher education was established. Thirty of the technical colleges became "polytechnics" — more than half of them in cities with universities. They may devise their own courses and exami­nations for degrees awarded by the Council for National Academic Awards. Their courses (not all technical, and not all leading to degrees) are of many kinds, including part-time and "sandwich".

б) Какая информация текста не нашла в ней своего отражения? В каких абзацах она содержится?

Чем отличаются английские «политехники» от университетов? Подтвердите свой ответ ссылкой на текст.

Text 3

а) Прочитайте текст и найдите в нем информацию, подтверждающую следующие утверждения.

1 The machine-tool is the mother of all machines. 2 The engineer is a guiding force behind the machine-tool. 3 The development of a complex mechanism involves the combined work of a large number of different kinds of engineers.

б) Озаглавьте текст.

The machine-tool is the original source of every object of our indus­trialized world. Automobiles, airplanes, diesel locomotives, washing ma­chines, electric stoves and radio sets are made by machine-tools. But without the engineer the machine-tool couldn't function.

One engineer seldom deals with every phase of development of a complex mechanism, e.g. a steam turbine. Various specialists take part in its development: a mechanical engineer skilled in the ap­plication of thermodynamics, a chemical engineer utilizing all the by-products of the fuel used, an electrical engineer converting the mechanical energy into a conventional form of power, an engineer skilled in the calculation of stresses when designing the turbine blades, a production engineer planning the smooth flow of material into the finished product, as well as the research engineer who conceived the idea in the first place. After all the components of the turbine have been developed into a complicated mechanism and detailed drawings have been made of all component parts, materials arc ordered and routing of the materials is planned. Finally, when the planning engineer has ordered the material, the tool engineer has designed the tools и ml the design engineer has given specifications on the drawings, production begins.

The finished components arc assembled) inspected and moved from the factory to the consumer through I department directed by a sales engineer.

Перечислите названные инженерные специальноcти в порядке их участия в про­цессе производства.

design engineer, sales engineer, tool engineer, research engineer, planning engineer.

Text 4

Прочитайте текст и определите:

а) связь заглавия текста с каждым абзацем;

б) о каком источнике энергии говорится в тексте;

в) каков вклад изобретателей парового двигателя в развитие железных дорог.

The Transportation Revolution

Railroads were not possible without the invention of the steam engine, which was first developed as a source of power for boats.

Richard Trevithick, an English engineer, experimented with stationary and moving steam engines. In 1804 he invented a steam locomotive that could move ten tons of iron and seventy people along ten miles of cast iron track in Wales. This marked the beginning of railways in England, a development that spread all over the world. This invention brought together the idea of iron rails and the steam engine. While rails had been around for a long time, they had only been made of wood and were used only in coalmines.

Then in 1814, George Stephenson, another English engineer, built a locomotive in the coal mine in which he worked eleven years later he came up with the engine, Locomotion. This new steam locomotive pulled the first train on a newly built line from Stockton to Darlington in the northern part of England. This train hauled coal between the towns, but passengers still rode in horse-drawn wagons because people were worried about the safety of these new machines.

All of the long experimenting in transportation during the Industrial Revolution created the basis for today's transportation systems — fast, efficient trains, ocean liners and super highways that transport both people and goods. The industrial revolution and the transportation revolution developed together.

Подготовьте ответ на английском языке на вопрос: что вкладывают авторы текста в понятие "Transportation Revolution"?