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Text b. They devoted their lives to architecture

  1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following words:

architect , I'a:kitakt] — архітектор, ensemble 1,а:п- 'sa:mbll — єдине ціле, aesthetic [i:s'6etik] — естетичний, honourable Го:пэгэЬ11 — почесний, славний, sculpture ['skAlptJol — скульптура, ancicnt l'einîntl — античний, старовинний, antique lan'tik] — античний, acquainted [e'kweintid] — знайомий, design [di'zainl — проект.

  1. Words and expressions necessary to comprehend the text:

to be turned into — бути перетвореним в (що-небудь), to take into account — врахувати, apart from — окрім, to be essential — бути істотним, fundamentals of sculpture — основи скульптури, masterpiece of architecture — шедевр архітектури, to be involved (in) — бути включеним (у що- небудь), to be awarded (with) — бути нагородженим (чим- небудь).

TEXT

An architect today has to be an engineer too. That's why architects are trained at specialized institutes or at poly­technic institutes.

Among the 14 full-time faculties of the Lviv Polytechnic Institute the Faculty of Architecture occupies an honourable place. It is one of the oldest faculties in the Institute.

The Institute was established in 1844 as a Technical Acade­my, which in 1877 was turned into a High Polytechnic School. In 1939 it became one of the largest Polytechnic Institutes in Ukraine.

The Faculty of Architecture is situated in the main build ing of the Institute, which was constructed in 1873—1877 after the project of a well-known architect Julian Zakhare- vich, the rector of the Polytechnic Institute at that time. The façade and the interior of the building are ornamented with alegoric sculptures by L. Marconi. In the assembly hall there are panels painted according to the drawings of the famous Polish artist Jan Mateiko.

The work of the architect is very closely connected with life. It is the architect who is to decide in what surrounding the people will live and work. He must take into account such functions of modern cities as work, transportation, dwelling and recreation, biological and social needs of the population. Therefore apart from architectural design which is, of course, the main subject for architecture students, the young people study mathematics, physics, structural mechanics, history of architecture and art. It is essential for a future architect to be able to draw and to be acquainted with fundamentals of sculpture and painting.

The Faculty provides favorable facilities for training good architects. The students spend a good deal of time in drawing and sculpture rooms, studying and drawing plastcrcast masks of ancient Greek heroes and pictures of great masterpieces of architecture. Here they study the classical and modern styles and skills of architectural draftsmanship and composi­tion. By studying and drawing them students learn the laws of harmony and beauty.

The first-year students practice drawing still life and geometrical bodies and more complex architectural elements, such as: trefoils, cantilevers and antique capitals.

The second-year students begin to draw nature-trees, bushes and later on small structures. They also get acquaint­ed with water-colour and painting antique heads. They also get familiar with the fundamentals of plastic anatomy which helps them to draw the human body. Then they master paint­ing.

It is worth mentioning that ancient part of Lviv itself with its old cathedrals, architectural ensembles, monuments, beautiful gardens, parks and squares is a kind of architectural laboratory. It offers young architects a good material to de­velop their artistic and aesthetic taste, to study real art.

It is a tradition at the Faculty to link theory and practice. The students acquire practical skills in teaching laboratories and during production training which they have to undergo after each academic year. They are also involved in research work together with the teaching staff of the Faculty.

Many interesting projects and designs of the students which have been worked out and introduced in real life in Lviv region and many other regions of our country, have been awarded with different state prizes.

ASSIGNMENTS

    1. Read the text and carry out the following assignments:

      1. Read and give Ukrainian equivalents of the following internationalisms:

architect, result, laboratory, prize, project, square, anat­omy, antiquity, ensemble, cathedral, monument, harmony, sculpture, interior.

      1. Find in the text the English equivalent of the following Ukrainian sentence:

Для майбутнього архітектора суттєво могти (щоб він міг) рисувати і бути ознайомленим з основами скульптури та малюнка.

      1. Find in the text the sentence telling about the architec­tural riches of the ancient part of Lviv.

    1. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following word-combi­nations:

to be turned into, built (painted) according to, to be very closely connected with, to take into account, great mas­terpieces, to get acquainted with, to link theory and practice, to be awarded with.

    1. How do you understand the term "architectural ensemble"?

    2. What are architects, designers, civil engineers and builders responsible for?

    3. N.ame some of the most prominent monuments and ensembles in your region.

    4. Describe an architectural masterpiece.

    5. Express your opinion about modern styles in architecture.

    6. Render the text according to your own plan.

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