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The writing module

IV. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

operating system \application \machine language\ system calls \ microprocessor

Without an…., you cannot communicate with your computer. When you give the computer a command, the operating system relays the instructions to the 'brain' of the computer, called the …….or CPU. You cannot speak directly to the CPU because it only understands….. When you are working in an application software program, such as Microsoft Word, commands that you give the ……..are sent through the operating system to the CPU. Applications access these services through application programming interfaces (APIs) or……..

Exercise 2. Match the left part with the right:

1. GUI

a. Command line interface

2. MS DOS

b. Experience

3 CLI

c. Graphical user interface

4. XP

d. Microsoft disc operating system

Exercise 3. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“What do we need the operating system for?”

“What is the difference between CLI ands GUI?

”A desktop and a laptop-advantages and disadvantages”

Lesson 4 common operating systems (Part 1- ms-dos and windows) the reading module

I. Read the text:

Common operating systems include:

MS-DOS

MS-DOS (short for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system commercialized by Microsoft. It was the most commonly used member of the DOS family of operating systems and was the main operating system for computers during the 1980s. It was based on the Intel 8086 family of microprocessors, particularly the IBM PC and compatibles. It is the standard OS for all IBM PC compatibles or clones. In this text-based operating system you communicate with the computer by typing commands that exist within its library.

WINDOWS

Microsoft Windows is a series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market, overtaking Mac OS.

Windows 95 is a bootable operating system in its own right. It has a graphical interface with many Macintosh-like features. It supports multimedia applications and comes with Internet software.

The Program manager is called Windows Explorer, Buttons and scroll-bars have an attractive, three dimensional look.

With Windows 98 Internet access becomes part of the user interface. The system includes Outlook Express for E-mail, NetMeeting conferencing software, a chat program and a Web-page editor. It offers support for such technologies as DVD. It also enables to watch TV on your PC.

WINDOWS 2000

As part of its "professional" line, Microsoft released Windows 2000 in February 2000.

Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. Four editions of Windows 2000 were released: Professional, Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server. While each edition of Windows 2000 was targeted to a different market, they share a core set of features, including many system utilities such as the Microsoft Management Console and standard system administration applications. In October 2001, Microsoft released Windows XP, a version that also retained the consumer-oriented usability of Windows 95 and its successors. This new version was widely praised in computer magazines. Windows XP is a family of 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, and media centers. The name "XP" stands for eXPerience. Windows XP is the successor to both Windows 2000 Professional and Windows Me, and is the first consumer-oriented operating system produced by Microsoft to be built on the Windows NT kernel (version 5.1) and architecture. The most common editions of the operating system are Windows XP Home Edition, which is targeted at home users, and Windows XP Professional, which offers additional features such as support for Windows Server domains and two physical processors, and is targeted at power users, business and enterprise clients. Windows XP is known for its improved stability and efficiency over the 9x versions of Microsoft Windows. It presents a significantly redesigned graphical user interface, a change Microsoft promoted as more user-friendly than previous versions of Windows. As of the end of September 2008, Windows XP is the most widely used operating system in the world with a 69% market share, having peaked at 85% in December 2006[12]. Windows XP has been criticized for its susceptibility to malware, viruses, Trojan horses, and worms.

  1. Reading exercises:

Exercise1. Read and memorize using the dictionary:

commercialized by, clone, compatibles, graphical user interfaces, multimedia applications, scroll-bar, three dimensional, Web-page editor, uniprocessor, multi-processor, kernel, user-friendly ,susceptibility

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1.What does MS-DOS stand for?

2.What kind of interface was used in MS-DOS-command line interface or GUI?

3.What were the main features of Windows 95?

4.What were the new features of Windows 98?

5.What were the four editions of Windows 2000?

6.What has Windows XP been criticized for?

Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1. In this text-based operating system you communicate

a its susceptibility to malware, viruses.

2. Windows XP has been criticized for

b. with many Macintosh-like features.

3. It has a graphical interface

c. with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers.

4. Windows 2000 is a graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work

d. by typing commands that exist within its library.

Exercise 4. Open brackets using the right words:

1. Windows XP is the successor to both Windows 2000 Professional and Windows Me, and is the first consumer-oriented (operating system/application/ uniprocessor) produced by Microsoft to be built on the Windows NT kernel and architecture.

2. Windows XP Professional offers additional features such as support for Windows Server (domains/providers/applications) and two physical processors.

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