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Tissue Engineering - John P. Fisher

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Tissue Engineering

[109]Tojo, T. et al., Tracheal replacement with cryopreserved tracheal allograft: experiment in dogs,

Ann. Thorac. Surg., 66, 209, 1998.

[110]Mukaida, T. et al., Experimental study of tracheal allotransplantation with cryopreserved grafts,

J.Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 116, 262, 1998.

[111]Bujia, J. et al., Tracheal transplantation: demonstration of HLA class II subregion gene products on human trachea, Acta Otolaryngol., 110, 149, 1990.

[112]Liu, Y. et al., Immunosuppressant-free allotransplantation of the trachea: the antigenicity of tracheal grafts can be reduced by removing the epithelium and mixed glands from the graft by detergent treatment, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 120, 108, 2000.

[113]Liu, Y. et al., A new tracheal bioartificial organ: evaluation of a tracheal allograft with minimal antigenicity after treatment by detergent, ASAIO J., 46, 536, 2000.

[114]Genden, E.M. et al., Portal venous ultraviolet B-irradiated donor alloantigen prevents rejection in circumferential rat tracheal allografts, Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 124, 481, 2001.

[115]Genden, E.M. et al., Orthotopic tracheal allografts undergo reepithelialization with recipientderived epithelium, Arch Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg., 129, 118, 2003.

[116]Vacanti, C.A. et al., Experimental tracheal replacement using tissue-engineered cartilage, J. Pediatr. Surg., 29, 201, 1994.

[117]Kojima, K. et al., Autologous tissue-engineered trachea with sheep nasal chondrocytes, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 123, 1177, 2002.

[118]Fuchs, J.R. et al., Engineered fetal cartilage: structural and functional analysis in vitro, J. Pediatr. Surg., 37, 1720, 2002.

[119]Kojima, K. et al., Comparison of tracheal and nasal chondrocytes for tissue engineering of the trachea, Ann. Thorac. Surg., 76, 1884, 2003.

[120]Sakata, J. et al., Tracheal composites tissue engineered from chondrocytes, tracheal epithelial cells, and synthetic degradable scaffolding, Transplant Proc., 26, 3309, 1994.

[121]Terzaghi, M., Nettesheim, P., and Williams, M.L., Repopulation of denuded tracheal grafts with normal, preneoplastic, and neoplastic epithelial cell populations, Cancer Res., 38, 4546, 1978.

[122]Engelhardt, J.F., Allen, E.D., and Wilson, J.M., Reconstitution of tracheal grafts with a genetically modified epithelium, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 88, 11192, 1991.

[123]Johnson, N.F. and Hubbs, A.F., Epithelial progenitor cells in the rat trachea, Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 3, 579, 1990.

[124]Engelhardt, J.F., Yankaskas, J.R., and Wilson, J.M., In vivo retroviral gene transfer into human bronchial epithelia of xenografts, J. Clin. Invest., 90, 2598, 1992.

[125]Dupuit, F. et al., Differentiated and functional human airway epithelium regeneration in tracheal xenografts, Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol., 278, L165, 2000.

[126]Rainer, C. et al., Transplantation of tracheal epithelial cells onto a prefabricated capsule pouch with fibrin glue as a delivery vehicle, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 121, 1187, 2001.

[127]Kojima, K. et al., A composite tissue-engineered trachea using sheep nasal chondrocyte and epithelial cells, FASEB J., 17, 823, 2003.

[128]Fuchs, J.R. et al., Fetal tissue engineering: in utero tracheal augmentation in an ovine model,

J.Pediatr. Surg., 37, 1000, 2002.

[129]Erices, A., Conget, P., and Minguell, J.J., Mesenchymal progenitor cells in human umbilical cord blood, Br. J. Haematol., 109, 235, 2000.

[130]Erices, A.A. et al., Human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells home and survive in the marrow of immunodeficient mice after systemic infusion, Cell Transplant, 12, 555, 2003.

[131]Erickson, G.R. et al., Chondrogenic potential of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells in vitro and in vivo, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 290, 763, 2002.

[132]Zvaifler, N.J. et al., Mesenchymal precursor cells in the blood of normal individuals, Arthr. Res., 2, 477, 2000.

[133]Wexler, S.A. et al., Adult bone marrow is a rich source of human mesenchymal “stem” cells but umbilical cord and mobilized adult blood are not, Br. J. Haematol., 121, 368, 2003.

Tracheal Tissue Engineering

33-19

[134]Pittenger, M.F. et al., Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells, Science, 284, 143, 1999.

[135]Barry, F. et al., Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow: differentiation-dependent gene expression of matrix components, Exp. Cell Res., 268, 189, 2001.

[136]Le Visage, C., Dunham, B., Flint, P., and Leong, K.W., Co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells and respiratory epithelial cells to engineer a human composite respiratory mucosa, Tissue Eng., 10, 1426–35, 2004.

[137]Kim, J. et al., Replacement of a tracheal defect with a tissue-engineered prosthesis: early results from animal experiments, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 128, 124, 2004.

Index

Note: Page numbers in italics refer to figures and tables

A

Acellular nerve matrix, 19-4 Acellular skin substitutes,

18-4

Acellular tissue matrices, 29-3 Acetaminophen, 30-7

AcM NPV virus, 14-3 Actomyosin, 4-2 Adeno-associated virus (AAV),

14-3

Adjunct internal liver support, 30-13

hepatocyte transplantation,

30-2

hepatocytes, encapsulated,

30-3

implantable devices, 30-2–30-3 Adsorption, 3-12, 13-14 Agarose, 8-2, 19-8, 22-4–22-5 Aggrecanases, 3-10

Airway epithelium, 33-2–33-3, 33-4, 33-13

Albumin, 8-5, 9-8, 13-10, 30-5, 30-6, 30-8

Alginate, 8-2–8-3, 13-11, 13-13, 14-5, 22-5, 23-17, 29-3, 29-10

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 15-8, 16-6, 21-2

AlloDerm®, 18-3, 18-4, 25-6, 25-14

Allogeneic cellular skin substitutes, 18-4–18-5

Allograft, 19-3–19-4, 20-8–20-9, 21-8, 28-1–28-2, 33-7

Alumoxane nanocomposites, functionalized, 11-3–11-4

Ameloblasts, 32-4

Ammonia removal, by glutamine synthesis, 30-7

Amorphous Ca-P (ACP), 9-2–9-3 Anchorage-dependent cells,

30-11

cytoskeletal tension, 4-2–4-4 Animal models, for orthopedic implant evaluation, 16-1

animals, for research, 16-2–16-3

biocompatibility, 16-3 biodegradation, 16-3–16-4 chondrogenesis, 16-5 experimental studies

design, 16-5–16-6 evaluation methods, 16-6

osteogenesis, 16-4–16-5 selection, 16-2

Anisotropy, 27-3, 27-11–27-13 Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL),

15-11–15-12, 20-9–20-10 Antisense RNA, 14-2

Aortic valve, 28-2, 28-3–28-4, 28-13

Apical vesicles, 3-8 Apligraf®, 18-3, 18-4

Arginine–glutamic acid–aspartic acid–valine (REDV), 3-7, 3-11, 5-7

Arginine–glycine–aspartate (RGD) sequence, 3-7, 3-11–3-12, 5-6–5-7, 19-8–19-10

Articular cartilage, 3-6, 15-10, 15-11, 16-5, 20-8, 22-6, 22-7–22-8

Articular disorders articular cartilage, 20-8 ligaments, 20-9–20-10 meniscus, 20-8–20-9

Articular tissue, 23-7, 23-8 Astrocyte, 19-9, 19-10, 19-12

Atrioventricular valve, 28-2, 28-3, 28-13–28-14

Autocrine effect, 7-7 Autogenous grafting techniques,

23-10–23-11

Autograft, 18-2, 18-7, 19-3, 21-8, 33-6–33-7

Autoimmunity, 7-10 Autologous chondrocyte

transplantation (ACT), 22-2, 29-10

B

Basal cells, 33-4

Basal lamina, see Basement membranes

Basement membranes, 3-2–3-4, 3-7, 3-8, 18-4, 18-7, 19-8, 21-10, 33-4, 33-5, 33-11

Basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), 6-4, 19-10–19-11

Bioadhesive materials, 10-2–10-3 Bioartificial esophagus, 25-15 Bioartificial livers, 30-6–30-13

bioreactor designs, for hepatocyes, 30-9–30-12

long-term hepatocyte culture systems, 30-6–30-9

potential sources, of cells, 30-12–30-13

techniques for preservation, 30-13

Biobrane®, 18-3, 18-4 Biocompatibility, 7-4, 8-11, 16-3,

21-9, 26-6

evaluation, 16-6 Biocoral®, 9-6

I-1

I-2

Biodegradation, 8-12, 11-1, 11-3, 13-10, 13-11, 16-3–16-4, 19-11, 19-13, 21-9, 22-5, 25-5, 27-8

Biological delivery methods, for gene delivery, 14-3–14-4

Biologics, 17-9 definition, 17-4

Biologics license application (BLA), 17-8, 17-9

Biomaterials, 7-9, 9-8, 16-3, 19-4, 21-8, 21-9, 25-6

cell adhesion, 5-5–5-11 effect, on physiological

behavior, 5-11 measurement, 5-7–5-11

natural Ca-P, 9-6 naturally derived, 24-6 types, 29-2–29-3

Biomimetic approach, for cell adhesion regulation, 5-6–5-7

Biomimetic materials, 6-1, 6-5,

13-9 bioadhesive materials,

10-2–10-3 and ECMs, 10-1–10-2

protease-degradable materials,

10-3–10-4 Bio-oss®, 9-6

Bioreactors, 15-1, 25-5, 27-8, 28-10–28-12

applications, in functional tissues, 15-5–15-13

anterior cruciate ligament and tendons, 15-11–15-12

bone, 15-7–15-10 cardiovascular system tissue,

15-5–15-7 cartilage, 15-10–15-11

cell seeding, 15-4–15-5 challenges, 15-13–15-14 designing, 15-13 hepatocyes, designs for,

30-9–30-12 hollow-fiber systems, 30-11 minimum cell mass and

functional capacity, 30-10

oxygen transport issues, 30-10–30-11

parallel plate systems, 30-11–30-12

mechanical conditioning, 25-15–25-18, 26-8

perfusion chambers and flow perfusion systems, 15-4

rotating-wall vessels, 15-3–15-4

spinner flask, 15-3

Bladder, 24-2–24-3, 24-7, 29-5 replacement, using tissue

engineering, 29-6–29-7

tissue formation ex situ, 29-5–29-6

Bone, 15-7–15-10, 15-14, 23-2, 23-17–23-18

biology, 21-1–21-3 calcium phosphate (Ca-P)

ceramics, 9-1

defects, clinical reconstruction of, 21-9–21-12

formation, 1-3, 2-2, 9-8, 9-9, 20-6–20-7, 21-1, 21-4

scaffold, ideal, 21-8–21-9 signaling molecules

gene therapy, 21-8 growth factors, 21-4–21-7

MSCs, 21-7–21-8 tissue, 3-6, 9-1, 11-1

Bone healing, 21-5, 21-11 MDSCs

isolation, 20-6 usage, 20-5–20-6

osteogenic proteins expression, regulation of, 20-6–20-7

problem, 20-5

Bone marrow, 1-5–1-6, 24-3, 27-2, 27-11, 30-13, 33-11

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), 2-2–2-4, 9-11, 9-12, 16-4, 20-2, 21-6,

32-5

bone regeneration, 20-7–20-8 BMP-2, 15-1, 20-5, 20-6, 20-9, 20-10, 21-6, 21-8

BMP-4, 13-14, 20-5–20-6, 32-5–32-6

BMP-7, 15-1, 21-6, 32-9 challenges and opportunities,

2-4

clinical applications, 2-4 extracellular matrix, 2-3

Bone sialoprotein (Bsp), 21-2 BoneSource®, 9-7

Boyden chamber, 6-7 Brain-derived neurotrophic

factor (BDNF), 19-11

Brownian motion, 12-7, 13-3 α-BSM/Biobon®, 9-7

Building block approach, 22-2, 28-9–28-10

C

C3b, 7-4, 7-7 C5a, 7-7

Cadherins, 5-4–5-5 Calcibon®, 9-7

Calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramics, for bone tissue engineering, 9-1

chemico-physical properties, 9-2–9-5

Index

in vivo interactions and osteoinductivity,

9-7–9-8 osteogenic cells, 9-9

osteoinductive growth factors,

9-9–9-13 products, 9-5–9-7

Carbon nanotube nanocomposites, 11-7–11-8

Cardiac tissue engineering, 27-1 cardiac architecture and

function, 27-3–27-4 cellular cardiomyoplasty, 27-2 current state, 27-4–27-10

cardiogenesis in vitro, 27-6–27-9

in vivo implantation, for cardiac repair, 27-9–27-10

design considerations

cell source and immunology, 27-10–27-11

cellular composition, 27-11 electrical function and

safety, 27-13–27-14 spontaneous activity,

27-14–27-15 tissue architecture,

27-11–27-13 tissue thickness, 27-13

future work, 27-15–27-16 tissue cardiomyoplasty,

27-2–27-3 Cardiovascular system, tissues of,

15-5–15-7 heart valves, 15-7

vascular grafts, 15-6–15-7 Carticel™, 17-4

Cartilage, 2-2, 3-5–3-6, 15-10–15-11, 21-1, 22-1, 23-17–23-18, 29-9–29-11, 33-6, 33-9–33-11

cells, 22-2–22-4 growth factors, 22-7

mechanical stimuli, 22-6–22-7 scaffolds, 22-4–22-6

zonal organization, 22-7–22-8 Cartilage defect model, 16-5 Cationic lipids, 14-5

Cell adhesion, 3-2, 3-13, 5-1, 7-7, 8-11, 19-7

to biomaterials, 5-5–5-11 effect, on physiological behavior, 5-11 measurement, 5-7–5-11

receptors, in tissue structures, 5-2–5-5

Cell and tissue targeting, 5-9, 13-1, 14-7–14-8

Cell carriers, 13-12–13-15 with drugs, 13-12–13-15

adsorption, 13-14 delivery systems, 13-12

Index

dissolution, 13-13 emulsion techniques, 13-14 suspension and physical

mixtures, 13-14–13-15

Cell–cell contacts, 6–3–6–4

Cell encapsulation, 19-11–19-12 Cell function, mechanical force application in vitro,

4-6–4-12 applications, 4-12 cellular responses,

force-induced, 4-9–4-10

mechanosensing, 4-10–4-12 pressure/compression, 4-9 shear stress, 4-7–4-9 stretch, 4-9

Cell implantation, 8-10 NSCs, 19-12–19-14 OECs, 19-12 Schwann cells, 19-12

Cell mass and functional capacity, 30-10

Cell migration, 3-9–3-10, 3-12, 6-1

cell-population assays, 6-7–6-8 individual-cell assays, 6-8–6-10 mammalian cell migration

characteristics, 6-2–6-4 mathematical models,

6-10–6-12 regulation

ECM proteins and cell–substrate interactions, 6–5–6–7

electrical fields, 6–7 soluble factors, 6-4–6-5

Cell-population assays, 6-7–6-8, 23-17, 29-5, 29-7

Cell seeding, 6-11–6-12, 26-7, 27-10, 28-8–28-9

in bioreactors, 15-4–15-5 Cells, 22-2–22-4

Cell sheets, 26-6

Cell targeting, 1-6–1-7

Cell therapy medicinal product, see Medicinal product

Cellular cardiomyoplasty, 27-2 Cellular skin substitutes

allogeneic, 18-4–18-5 autologous, 18-5–18-7

Cementum, 32-3, 32-4

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER),

17-2

Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), 17-2, 17-4

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), 17-2

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), 17-14

Central nervous system (CNS), 14-4, 14-9, 19-1, 19-2–19-3, 19-12

Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council (CPAC), 17-11

Centrifugation approach, 5-8–5-9

Cervical loop, 32-4

Chemical delivery methods, for gene delivery, 14-4–14-5 Chemical patterning, 19-7–19-8 Chemotaxis, 6-4, 6-5, 6-8, 6-10

Chitosan, 8-4, 14-5, 25-7, 28-9 Chondrocytes, 1-4, 8-3, 15-10, 15-11, 22-2–22-3, 22-4, 22-7–22-8, 29-10, 29-11,

33-9, 33-10–33-11 Chondrogenesis, 16-5, 22-3, 22-5 Chondroitin sulfate

proteoglycans (CSPGs), 3-10

Christensen® total joint system, 23-13, 23-14

Chronic inflammation, 7-4, 7-10, 8-11, 33-7

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), 19-12

Ciliated columnar cells, 33-4 Classical drug-delivery systems,

13-9–13-12 monolithic systems,

13-10–13-12 Code of Federal Regulations

(CFR), 17-6 Section 860.3(c), 17-8

Section 860.7(d), 17-8–17-9 Section 860.93, 17-8

Collagen, 2-3, 3-8–3-9, 8-4, 13-11, 15-11, 15-12, 19-4, 19-8, 22-4, 25-14, 26-5, 27-7, 28-9, 29-3, 32-2

type I, 1-3, 10-3, 21-2, 22-2, 24-5, 24-6, 32-2

type II, 3-5, 3-13, 8-3, 8-4, 20-8, 22-1, 22-7

type III, 3-13 type IV, 3-3, 31-6 type VI, 3-6 type VII, 3-9 type X, 3-6

Collagen gels, 4-4, 4-12, 15-12, 24-7, 25-13, 26-4, 26-5,

27-7 Collagen–silicone stent,

25-14–25-15 Combination products, 17-2,

17-4 Complement system, 7-7

Compression, 4-3–4-4, 4-9, 4-12, 15-11, 23-7–23-8, 29-9

Cone-and-plate device, 4-7, 4-8

I-3

Contact guidance process, 6-7,

19-7

Contact inhibition of locomotion, 6-3

“Copy-cat” device, 17-12 Corneal epithelial cells, 6-7 Corporal tissues reconstruction,

29-7–29-9

Cryogenic molding, 25-9–25-10 Cryopreservation, 12-9–12-11,

12-14, 33-7 Crystallinity, 9-2–9-3 Crystallization, 12-10, 12-14 Cultured epithelial autograft

(CEA), 18-5, 18-7 Cultured skin substitute (CSS),

18-3, 18-5–18-7, 18-9 Curing method, 8-10 Current good manufacturing

practices (cGMPs), 17-9 Cutaneous gene therapy, 18-10 Cyclic stretching, 4-9, 15-12,

25-15

Cystic fibrosis, 14-10 transmembrane conductance

regulator (CFTR), 14-10

Cytokeratin, 25-12 Cytokines, 1-4, 7-7–7-8, 13-8,

21-4

Cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (CMVie), 14-2

Cytoskeletal tension, 4-5–4-6 in anchorage-dependent cells,

4-2–4-4 Cytosolic mobility, 12-5

D

Dacron™, 26-2 Data mining, 3-8

Decellularized vascular matrix,

26-6 Decentralized model, in

mechanosensing, 4-11 Degenerative joint disease,

23-8–23-9 Dendrimer, 14-4–14-5 Dental follicle, 32-4 Dental lamina, 32-3–32-4 Dental organ, 32-4 Dental papilla, 32-4 Dental pulp stem cells, see

Human DPSCs Dental tissues bioengineering,

32-1

dentin tissue regeneration, 32-8–32-9

genetic control and development

molecular mechanisms, 32-4–32-7

I-4

Dental tissues bioengineering (continued)

stages, of tooth development, 32-3–32-4

regenerative strategies, 32-7–32-10

supporting structures, 32-2–32-3

Dentin phosphoproteins (DPP),

32-2

Dentin sialoprotein (DSP), 32-2 Dermagraft®, 18-3, 18-4 Desiccation, vitrification by,

12-11, 12-13 Desmosine, 26-4

Dialysate regeneration, 31-5 Dialysis, 31-1–31-2, 31-4–31-5

and filtration systems, 30-5–30-6

Diffusion, 12-12, 13-3–13-4, 16-4, 19-3, 21-7, 21-10–21-11, 28-13

mechanisms, 12-7 Dihydroxylphenylalanine

(DOPA), 3-12 Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 12-9, 12-10

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), 4-10, 13-14–13-15, 14-6,

14-7

nucleotide decoys, 14-2 plasmids, 14-2

recombinant techniques, 20-2 Drug definition, 17-4, 17-5 Drug delivery, 13-1

goals, 13-2 mechanisms, 13-2–13-5

competing mechanisms and kinetics, 13-5

diffusion, 13-3–13-4 erosion, 13-4 swelling, 13-4

protein drug properties, 13-5–13-7

in tissue engineering, 13-8–13-15

cell carriers, 13-12–13-15 classical drug-delivery

systems, 13-9–13-12 Duchenne muscular dystrophy

(DMD), 20-4

E

ECM proteins and cell–substrate interactions

for cell movement, 6-5–6-7 Ectomesenchyme, 32-4

Elastic cartilage, 22-1–22-2, 33-9, 33-10

Elastin, 3-13, 10-4, 23-6, 24-6, 25-4, 25-15, 26-7

Electrical fields

for cell movement, 6-7 Electroporation, 14-6 Electrostatic spinning, 25-8–25-9 Embryonic stem cells, 24-9,

32-7

Emulsion techniques, 13-14 Enamel, 32-2, 32-4

Enamel knot, 32-4, 32-5–32-6 Endobon®, 9-6

Endochondral ossification, 21-1 Endocrine effect, 7-8 Endocytosis, 14-6, 14-7 Endolysosome, 14-6–14-7 Endothelial cells, 3-15, 6-5–6-6,

6-8, 6-9, 7-4, 15-6, 15-7, 18-9, 18-10, 29-8

End-stage healing response, 7-5 End-stage renal disease (ESRD),

31-1, 31-2

Engineered heart tissues (EHTs), 27-7, 27-10, 27-11

Entropic brush, 3-2–3-3 Entubulization, 19-3

biochemical modifications, 19-7–19-11

cellular modifications, 19-11–19-14

nerve conduits, using, 19-4 physical modifications,

19-5–19-7 Epicel®, 18-3, 18-5 EpiDerm™, 18-3

Epidermal growth factor (EGF), 3-15, 6-4

EpiDermFT™, 18-3, 18-5 EpiDex™, 18-3, 18-5 Epithelial cells, 6-1, 6-7, 8-8,

25-4, 25-5, 32-4, 33-2–33-4, 33-9–33-11

characteristics, 25-10–25-12 source, for tissue engineering, 25-12–25-13

Erosion, 13-4 Esophagus, 33-4

anatomy and physiology, 25-3–25-4

smooth muscle tissue constructs, mechanical conditioning of, 25-15–25-18, 25-19

cell possibilities

epithelial characteristics, 25-10–25-12

epithelial cell source, 25-12–25-13

esophageal regeneration, 25-14–25-15

muscle component, 25-13 muscularis mucosa and

externa, 25-14 criteria for tissue engineering,

25-4–25-5

Index

fabrication processes, 25-7–25-10

medical need/clinical problem, 25-1–25-2

scaffold possibilities background, 25-5 design, 25-6–25-7 materials selection, 25-5–25-6

European Economic Community (EEC), see European Union (EU)

European Medicines Evaluation

Agency (EMEA), 17-10–17-11

European Union (EU), 17-10 Expression-targeting, 14-7–14-8 Extracellular ice formation (EIF),

12-11

Extracellular matrix (ECM), 1-3, 2-3, 3-1, 8-11, 10-1–10-2, 13-7, 15-6, 19-4, 19-8, 22-7, 25-6, 25-14, 25-15

basement membranes, 3-2–3-3 focal adhesions, 3-3–3-5 gradient structure formation,

3-13–3-14 growth factor delivery,

3-14–3-16 implanted materials,

functional integration, 3-2

interaction, with growth factors, 10-3

mining, for functional motifs, 3-8–3-10

molecules, functions, 3-10–3-11

polymeric materials and surface modification, 3-11–3-13

properties, 3-8 proteins, artificial, 10-4

scaffolds, in cellular tension regulation

compliance effect, 4-4–4-5 physicality, 4-6

spatial distribution effect, 4-5–4-6

and skeletal tissues, 3-5–3-7 sources, 3-7

synthetic ECM, 24-4–24-6 Extracellular signaling, 24-4

Ex vivo gene therapy, 14-8–14-9, 18-10, 20-2, 20-6, 20-8–20-9, 21-8

F

Fabrication process, 8-10, 17-11, 19-6, 21-9, 25-7–25-10

cryogenic molding, 25-9–25-10

Index

electrostatic spinning, 25-8–25-9

rapid freeze prototyping, 25-10 Familial tooth agenesis, 32-7 FDA Modernization Act (1997),

17-9

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), 14-3–14-4

Fibrin, 3-15, 19-8, 28-9

Fibrinogen, 7-4, 15-10 Fibroblast, 3-14, 4-4, 6-7, 18-5,

18-10, 25-13

Fibroblast growth factors(FGFs), 2-3, 32-5

FGF-1, 21-5

FGF-2, 21-5 Fibrocartilage, 22-2, 23-18 Fibronectin, 1-3, 3-7, 3-9, 6-6,

19-8 Fibrosa, 28-2

Fibrous degeneration, of autograft, 33-7

Fick’s second law of diffusion,

13-3

Filtered fluid reabsorption hollow-fiber bioreactors,

31-8–31-9 proximal tubule cells, 31-8 RAD, 31-9–31-12

renal tubule, 31-7–31-8

Focal adhesion, 3-3–3-4, 4-2–4-4 as signaling complexes,

3-4–3-5

Food, Drug and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act (1976), 17-2, 17-6, 17-7

Section 201(g)(1), 17-4 Section 201(h), 17-4 Section 520(m), 17-5 Section 525, 17-5

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 17-1–17-2, 17-14, 18-8, 22-2, 23-10, 29-3

regulation, 17-2–17-9 HCT/Ps, 17-2, 17-3,

17-5–17-6, 17-7 marketing review and

approval pathways, 17-4, 17-6, 17-8–17-9, 17-12–17-13

medical product classification, 17-4

“Proposed Approach”, 17-2,

17-6 special product

designations, 17-5 Fracture repair, 21-2–21-3 Functional heterogeneity, of

hepatocyte, 30-7–30-8

G

Galvanotaxis, 6-7

Gelatin, 8-4–8-5, 13-10, 13-11, 13-12, 27-7

Gel-like system, 13-11–13-12 Gene gun, 14-6

Gene therapy, 14-1, 20-2–20-3, 21-8, 26-4

cell and tissue targeting, 14-7–14-8

clinical applications, 14-9–14-10

ex vivo applications, 14-8–14-9 gene delivery, 14-2–14-6 intracellular pathways,

14-6–14-7

in vitro applications, 14-8 in vivo applications, 14-9

nucleotides, for delivery, 14-2 Genetic control, of tooth

development molecular mechanisms, 32-4–32-7

stages, of tooth development, 32-3–32-4

Genetic modification

of keratinocytes, 18-10

of vascular cells, 26-4–26-5 Genital tissues, 29-7 Genzyme Tissue Repair, 17-4 Glial cell-line-derived growth

factor (GDNF), 19-11, 19-12

Glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 3-3, 31-6

Glomerular endothelium, 31-6 Glomerular slit diaphragm, 31-6 Glomerulus

renal, 31-2, 31-5–31-6 synthetic, 31-6–31-7

Glycation, 26-5

Glycoproteins, 3-9, 5-4, 6-7, 21-2, 28-9, 33-4

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG), 3-10, 15-10–15-11, 23-7, 23-8, 33-8, 33-9

Glypican, 3-10

Gore-Tex®, 3-4, 19-4, 19-6, 26-2, 28-14

Granulation tissue, 7-5 Granulose stem cells, 29-13 Growth factors, 10-3, 15-1, 21-4,

22-7

Ca-P ceramics, 9-9–9-11 delivery of, 3-14–3-16

and gene therapy, 20-2–20-3 and morphogens, 2-1 osteoinductive, 9-11–9-13

Guanosine monophosphatedependent protein kinase (PKG), 26-5

I-5

H

Haptotaxis, 6-6

Heart valves, 15-7, 28-1 bioreactor conditioning,

28-10–28-12 building block approach,

28-9–28-10 cell origin, 28-10

cell seeding, 28-8–28-9 clinical experience,

28-12–28-13

in vivo testing, in animal models, 28-12

leaflet scaffolds, decellularized, 28-7–28-8

native heart valve, as design goal

anatomy and terminology,

28-2

microstructure and material behavior, 28-2–28-4

valvular cells, 28-4–28-6 natural materials, 28-9 polymeric scaffolds,

biodegradable, 28-6–28-7

Hematopoietic support and MSCs

fat, 1-5

muscle, 1-4–1-5

new fundamental role, 1-5–1-6

tendon, 1-5 usage, 1-6

Hemi-arthroplasty, 23-10 Hemofiltration

renal glomerulus, 31-2, 31-5–31-6

synthetic glomerulus, 31-6–31-7

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), 3-10, 31-6

Heparin, 3-15

Hepatic tissue engineering, 30-1 adjunct internal liver support,

30-2–30-3 temporary liver support,

extracorporeal bioartifical livers,

30-6–30-13 dialysis and filtration

systems, 30-5–30-6 whole liver perfusion,

30-3–30-5 Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF),

6-4 Hepatocytes, 8-3, 8-4

bioreactor design, 30-9–30-12 encapsulation, 30-3 implantable hepatocytes,

30-2–30-3

long-term culture techniques, 30-6–30-9

I-6

Hepatocytes (continued) preservation techniques, 30-13 transplantation, 30-2

Herpes simplex virus (HSV), 14-3 Heterotopic animal model, 16-4 Heterotopic ossification (HO),

20-6–20-7 Histidine–lysine polyplexes, 14-4 Hollow-fiber bioreactors,

30-9–30-10, 30-11,

31-8–31-9

Human biliary epithelial cells (hBECs), 8-8

Human cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps), 17-2, 17-3, 17-5–17-6, 17-7,

17-8

Human DPSCs, 32-7–32-8 Human embryonic stem cells

(hESCs), 19-13, 22-4 Human hepatocyte, 30-10, 30-12 Human skin substitutes,

bioengineering of, 18-1 assessment, 18-8

clinical considerations, 18-7–18-8

composition, 18-2–18-7 future directions, 18-9–18-10 objectives, 18-2

regulatory issues, 18-8–18-9 Human tissues ownership, 17-13 HYAFF® 11, 22-4

Hyaline cartilage, 22-1 Hyaluronic acid, 1-3, 8-3–8-4,

22-4, 28-9–28-10 Hybrid multi-scale model, 6-11 Hydrogel, 3-15, 8-4, 8-11, 13-11,

13-12, 19-8, 19-10, 22-5, 23-17, 24-5–24-6

scaffolds, 26-7

Hydrostatic pressurization, 4-9 Hydroxyapatite (HA), 9-4

nanocomposites, 11-1, 11-6–11-7

Hypersensitivity reactions, 7-8

I

Immune response, 7-1, 7-6–7-10 Immunoglobulin, 5-5 Immunoglobulin G (IgG), 7-4 Immunosuppression, 7-10 Immunotoxicity, 7-9–7-10 Individual-cell assays, 6-8–6-10 Inflammatory response, 7-1,

7-2–7-6

Injectable cements, 9-6–9-7 Injectable therapies, 29-10–29-11 “Inside out” signals, 3-5

In situ fabrication, 8-10 Insulin-like growth factors

(IGFs), 2-3, 5-3

IGF-I, 9-12, 21-4–21-5, 22-7

IGF-II, 21-4–21-5 Integra®, 18-3, 18-4

Integrin receptor, 3-2, 3-4, 4-2, 4-4, 5-2–5-4, 5-6–5-7, 6-2, 6-5, 24-4

Interfacial biochemistry, 5-6 Interfacial chemistry, 5-6 Interfacial topography, 5-7 Internal derangement, of TMJ,

23-8, 23-9 Interpore™, 9-6

Intracellular ice formation (IIF), 12-10–12-11

Intracellular pathways, 14-6–14-7 Intracellular water and molecular mobility, 12-4–12-6

Intramembranous ossification,

21-1

Investigational device exemption (IDE), 17-8, 17-9 Investigational new drug (IND) application, 17-8, 17-9, 31-12

In vitro angiogenesis, 18-9–18-10 In vitro gene therapy, 14-8

In vivo gene therapy, 14-9, 20-2 In vivo testing, in animal models,

28-12 Isoleucine–lysine–valine–

alanine–valine (IKVAV), 5-7

J

Japan Association for the Advancement of Medical Equipment, 17-12

K

Kayexelate®, 31-5 Keratinocytes, 6-7, 18-2,

18-5–18-6, 18-8, 18-10 Kidney, 29-15–29-17; see also

Renal replacement therapy

mitochondrial DNA analysis, 29-16–29-17

L

Laminar flow chambers, 5-9–5-10 Laminin, 3-7, 3-9–3-10, 5-7, 31-8 Leaflet scaffolds, decellularized,

28-7–28-8 Lentivirus, 14-4 Ligaments, 15-11–15-12,

20-9–20-10, 23-4 Lipids, 13-11, 14-5 Lithographic method, 3-14 Liver Dialysis Unit, 30-5

Index

Long bone defect model, 16-4–16-5

Long-term hepatocyte culture systems

functional heterogeneity, of hepatocyte, 30-7–30-8

non-parenchymal cells, 30-6–30-7

preconditioning hepatocytes, 30-8–30-9

Lorenz-Biomet total joint system, 23-15

Lyophilization, 12-14, 13-14

M

Macrophage, 7-2, 7-4, 7-5, 9-4,

19-2 Macroporosity, 9-5 “Magic bullet”, 13-2

Magnetically aligned fibrin gels (MAFGs), 19-8

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 21-10

Mammalian cell migration characteristics

cell–cell contacts, 6-3–6-4 cell movement cycle, 6-2 persistent random walk,

6-2–6-3 Markov chain, 6-9–6-10 Marrow stroma, 1-4

Material surface chemistry, 5-6, 7-5

Matrigel™, 3-7, 19-12 Matrix metalloproteinases

(MMPs), 26-8 Mechanical conditioning

bioreactors for, 26-8

of smooth muscle tissue constructs, 25-15–25-18, 25-19

Mechanical forces, on cells, 4-1 Mechanical stimuli, 4-7–4-10, 15-1–15-2, 22-6–22-7, 24-3, 24-7, 25-15, 25-16

Mechanical strength, 8-12, 15-6 Mechanosensing

direct, 4-10–4-11 indirect, 4-12

Medical Device Amendments (1976), 17-8, 17-12

Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act (2002), 17-4

Medical products classification, 17-2, 17-4

Medicinal product, 17-10–17-11 Melanocyte, 18-2, 18-9 Melanoderm™, 18-3, 18-5 Meniscus, 20-8–20-9

Index

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), 1-2–1-3, 15-11, 15-12, 21-7–21-8, 22-3, 33-11

hematopoietic support fat, 1-5

muscle, 1-4–1-5

new fundamental role, 1-5–1-6

tendon, 1-5 usage, 1-6 Meshes, 8-11, 23-18

Microcontact printing technique, 3-14, 5-11, 19-7

Microfabrication technique, 5-7, 19-6–19-7, 19-8

Microfluidic method, 3-13 Microfluidic patterning, 19-7 Microgel, 14-5

Microinjection technique, 14-6,

14-7

Micropatterning, 19-6–19-7, 30-7 Micropipette aspiration, 5-7–5-8 Microporosity, 9-5 Microstamping technique, 19-7 Microtexturing, 19-5–19-6 Microvascular surgery, 21-11 Mineralization, 21-1

Mining, 3-1–3-2

Mitek®, 23-19

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis, 29-16–29-17

Mitral valve, 28-2, 28-3 Mode Coupling Theory, 12-6,

12-13 Molecular Adsorbent

Recirculating System (MARS), 30-6

Molecular mobility, in preservation, 12-1, 12-6–12-14

cryopreservation, 12-9–12-11 lyophilization, 12-14 supercooling and phase

change, 12-9 vitrification, 12-11–12-13 Monocyte immigration, 7-3–7-4 Monolithic systems, 13-10–13-12 gel-like systems, 13-11–13-12 particulate systems, 13-11 Mononuclear phagocytic system

(MPS), 7-2 Montmorillonite (MMT), 11-5,

11-6 Morphogenesis, 2-1, 32-5

BMPs, 2-2–2-3, 20-7–20-8, 21-6, 24-3, 32-5

and growth factors, 2-3 mRNA, 13-7, 14-2, 15-10, 29-8,

29-14

Mucous goblet cell, 33-4 Multiwalled carbon nanotubes

(MWNTs), 11-7, 11-8 Muscle-derived stem cells

(MDSCs), 20-1

for bone healing improvement, 20-5–20-6

isolation, 20-3, 20-6 Muscularis externa, 25-6, 25-13,

25-14

Muscularis layer, 25-3–25-4 Muscularis mucosa, 25-6, 25-13,

25-14

Mutual recognition procedure, 17-10

Myosin light chain (MLC), 4-2

N

Nanocomposite scaffolds, 11-1 alumoxanes, functionalized, 11-3–11-4

carbon nanotubes, 11-7–11-8 ceramics, 11-7 hydroxyapatites, 11-6–11-7 overview, 11-2–11-3 polymer-layered silicates,

11-4–11-6 Nanofabrication technique, 19-6,

31-7

National Organ Transplant Act, 17-13

Natural ceramics, 9-6 Natural materials, 28-9 scaffolds, 26-4–26-5

Natural polymers, 8-1–8-5, 21-8, 22-4–22-5, 24-6, 28-9

polypeptides, 8-4–8-5 polysaccharides, 8-2–8-4, 14-5,

29-3

Neonatal rat aortic smooth muscle cells (NRASMCs),

28-9 Nephrin, 31-6

Nerve growth factor (NGF), 3-15, 13-11, 14-9, 14-10, 19-10

Nerve regeneration, 19-1

CNS, 19-1, 19-2–19-3, 19-12 enhancement, using

entubulization strategies, 19-4–19-14

biochemical modifications, 19-7–19-11

cellular modifications, 19-11–19-14

physical modifications, 19-5–19-7

guidance strategies, 19-3–19-4 PNS, 19-1, 19-2, 19-12

Neural stem cells (NSCs), 19-12–19-14

Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), 19-11 Neurotrophins, 19-10–19-11 New drug application (NDA),

17-8, 17-9 β-NGF, 3-16

Non-collagenous proteins (NCPs), 32-2–32-3

I-7

Nonintegrin receptor, 3-3, 3-4 Non-parenchymal cells,

30-6–30-7 Norian®, 9-7

N-Terface™, 18-7

Nuclear localization signal (NLS),

14-7

Nuclear transplantation, see Therapeutic cloning

Nucleotides, for delivery DNA, 14-2, 20-2 RNA, 14-2

O

Office of the Combination Products, 17-4

Olfactory bulb ensheathing cells (OECs), 19-12

OrCel®, 18-3, 18-4 Oligodentrocyte, 19-7 Organoid units (OUs), 24-3,

25-13, 25-14

Orphan Drug Act (ODA) (1982), 17-5, 17-8

Orthotopic liver transplantation

(OLT), 30-1–30-2 Ortoss®, 9-6

Osteoblast , 2-3, 4-12, 6-1, 8-5, 8-7, 8-9, 9-11, 15-8, 21-1, 21-2, 21-4, 21-6; see also Bone formation

Osteocalcin (Ocn), 21-2 Osteoclast (bone-resorbing), 21-1 Osteoconductivity, 11-2, 11-7,

15-8, 21-8 Osteogenesis, 1-4, 16-4–16-5 Osteogenic proteins expression,

regulation of, 20-6–20-7 Osteograf®-N, 9-6 Osteoinductivity

growth factors and Ca-P ceramics, 9-9–9-13

and in vivo interactions, 9-7–9-8

Osteonectin/SPARC, 3-10 Osteopontin (Opn), 3-7, 3-10,

21-2

“Outside in” signaling, 3-3 Oxygen transport issues, 30-10–30-11

P

Paracrine effect, 7-7–7-8, 24-7 Parallel-plate flow chamber, 4-7,

4-8, 5-9 Parallel plate systems,

30-11–30-12 Particulate systems, 13-11 PEGylation, 13-7, 14-4,