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2. Задания для студентов юридического факультета

I. Письменно переведите 1, 2, 3, 5и 6 абзацы текста.

Judges.

1. The judge is known to be the presiding officer of the court. The statutory basis for appointing judges dates from 1700. Judges are not themselves a separate profession: they are barristers who have been elevated to the bench, itself a name derived from the part of the Court where they sit. The judge decides the interpretation of the law. All the evidence having been given, the judge summarizes the case, both law and facts, for the jury. This is called his summing up.

2. Judges cannot be removed from office on account of political considerations – the independence of the judiciary is, at least theoretically, guaranteed. The competition to become a judge is less severe than it looks: an ambitious barrister can probably become some kind of judge by the age of fifty five, and once appointed, the judges are supported and protected by all the formal machinery of the law, in a life-style which is like no other.

3. The professional judges, “High Court Judges”, are expected to deal with the most serious crimes. They are paid salaries by the state. Alongside with professional judges there are unpaid judges. They are called “Magistrates” or “Justices of the Peace” (JPs)[5][17]. They are ordinary citizens who are selected not because they have any legal training but because they have sound common sense and understanding of their fellow human beings. They give up their time voluntarily.

4. Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district. Nobody, not even the Magistrates themselves, knows who is on the special committee in their area. The committee tries to draw Magistrates from different professions and social classes.

5. The work of the Magistrates’ Courts throughout the country depends on the unpaid services of the Justices of the Peace (JPs). The average citizen is much more likely to appear before a magistrate than before a judge; and the great bulk of British justice is carried out not by professional lawyers but by unpaid magistrates[6][18] who sit on the bench[7][19] only one day a week or a fortnight. A magistrates' court provides a complete contrast to the pomp of a law court, with no wigs, no gowns and often no lawyers.

6. The origins of the Justices of the Peace go deep into the Middle Ages, before any legal bureaucracy existed. They are believed to have been established in 1361. The government expected three or four people in each English county to keep the peace and punish offenders. For several centuries they ran the more of local power as the instruments of governing, many of them serving both as justices and members of parliament. Then justices lost some duties[8][20] to the police forces and the new county councils took over their local government powers; but their work was now swelled by matrimonial cases and by the separate juvenile courts.

II. Подчеркните пунктирной линией случаи употребления герундия.

III. Выпишите из текста существительные с левыми и правыми определениями, выраженными неличными формами глагола (Participle I, Participle П, Gerund, Infinitive). Полученные пары разместите соответственно в два столбца.

Например:

         presiding officer (P.I )                       name derived (P.II.)

IV. Подчеркните в тексте волнистой линией инфинитивные обороты: сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject-4) и сложное дополнение (Complex Object-1).

V. Опираясь на текст, переведите на английский язык следующие группы слов:

Заключительная речь судьи; отстранить от работы (уволить); по крайней мере; честолюбивый; наряду; юридическое образование; чувство здравого смысла; сограждане; добровольно; предстать перед судом магистрата; большая часть британского правосудия; контрастировать с; заседать; учреждать; соблюдать порядок; наказывать правонарушителей; семейное дело; суд для несовершеннолетних.

VI. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What time does statutory basis for the appointment of judges date from?

2. What are the duties of the judge?

3. What sort of crimes do the professional judges deal with?

4. Who is the great deal of British justice carried out by?

5. What kind of court is a magistrates’ court?

6. What's the origin of the JPs?

VII. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Профессия юриста, возникшая в стенах университета, является частью классического пути в парламент и к политической власти.

2. Полагают, что суд магистрата был учрежден в 1361 году.

3. Они хотели, чтобы порядок поддерживался в каждом графстве и правонарушители были наказаны.

4. Известно, что мировые судьи отбираются специальными комитетами в каждом городе и районе.

5. В настоящее время работа мировых судей сводится к рассмотрению семейных дел и дел несовершеннолетних.

6. В среднем гражданин Британии, вероятно, чаще предстает перед судом магистрата, чем перед судьей.

7.Считают, что независимость судей, по крайней мере, теоретически, гарантирована.

VIII. Переведите предложения, принимая во внимание особенности грамматических конструкций.

1. The lawmakers were influenced by the model of the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church and laws had been put into writing by Greeks by the 16th century B.C.

2. National and local newspapers regularly print accounts of legal cases and quite often the stories they choose are ones in which the punishment does not appear to fit the crime.

3. You shouldn’t say or write anything that you wouldn’t be willing to state under oath.

4. We have to remember that the short paragraph sums up a complicated legal case which must have taken hours, days or even weeks of court time, and that the judge knew a lot more about the case than the casual newspaper reader.

5. A juror must reconsider his or her views in the light of deliberations and change them if he or she has become convinced they are wrong.

6. The law makers wanted to show the legal rules of their citizens to have originated in the states, not in local customs.

7. I don’t want a lawyer to tell me what I cannot do; I hire him to tell me how to do what I want to do (J.Priepont Morgan).

8. Continental systems of law are known to have resulted from the attempts of governments to produce a set of code.

9. A bill being passed by parliament, it becomes a law, an act of Parliament.

10.If we never told lies, never took anything that didn’t belong to us, never omitted to do anything that we ought not to do we should still require a set of rules of behavior, in other words laws, to enable us to live in any kind of satisfactory state.

11. Murder is always a mistake... One should never do anything that one cannot talk about after dinner (Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray).

12. Many jurors find it to be exciting to learn about this most important system from the inside, and to be challenging to deal fairly and thoroughly with the cases they hear.

13. If it were not for the law, you couldn't go out without the fear of being kidnapped, robbed or murdered.

14. If we were all as good as we ought to be, laws would still be necessary.

15. Outside information about the case during trial having been accidentally heard, the jurors told the bailiff about it in private.

16. The duties of the police are varied, ranging from assisting at accidents to safe guarding public order and dealing with lost property.

 

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