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1. Определите, является ли утверждение:

Automated systems can be extremely complex only because of the area of application.

  1. истинным

  2. ложным

  3. в тексте нет информации

2. Определите, является ли утверждение:

Automated reordering of goods can make the whole system work more efficiently.

  1. истинным

  2. ложным

  3. в тексте нет информации

3. Определите, является ли утверждение:

The US space shuttle program needs many accurate calculations and fast responses that can be provided by computers only.

  1. истинным

  2. ложным

  3. в тексте нет информации

4. Определите, является ли утверждение:

Complex automated systems should be designed so as an operator could control them manually.

  1. истинным

  2. ложным

  3. в тексте нет информации

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:

The automation of supermarkets may improve the functioning of service, check-outs and distribution of goods.

  1. 1

  2. 2

  3. 3

  4. 4

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:

The quality work can be dependent on only one error during the system loading.

  1. 1

  2. 2

  3. 3

  4. 4

7. Ответьте на вопрос:

How do automated systems improve the work of a company or an organization?

  1. The number of grocery items is increased.

  2. More products are manufactured and more services are provided.

  3. A check out clerk always knows the price of every item.

  4. Distributors don’t need to contact the company.

8. Определите основную идею текста.

  1. The main disadvantage of a complex automated system is the lack of money and inflexibility.

  2. The effectiveness of automated systems provides the rapid development of companies but still they’ve got some serious negative effects.

  3. The economic and technical development of any company depends on automated systems.

  4. Sometimes the system may fail and it requires extensive redesigning of equipment.

TEXT 4

Glimpses of History of Physical Chemistry

(1) In 1896, Henri Becquerel and the Curies had discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity. This laid the basis for nuclear chemistry and physics. In 1919 Ernest Rutherford produced the first artificial transmutation of elements, and in 1934 the Joliot-Curies discovered that all elements could be made to be radioactive. By 1939 Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, and Lise Meitner had established the occurrence of uranium fission. By the early 1940s nuclear reactions had been used to make radioactive isotopes of all elements from atomic number 1 to 98 inclusive. Glenn Seaborg contributed much to this work. In the first 25 years of the 20th century, Rutherford's work laid the basis for the interpretation of the structure of atoms. Gilbert Lewis, Irving Langmuir, and Niels Bohr submitted the first qualitative concept of atomic structure in the period 1912-25. The more workable picture was given by the wave theory of matter (1925). In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Linus Pauling contributed much to knowledge of the nature of the chemical bond and of the relationship between the structure of atoms and molecules and their properties.

(2) One of the most notable achievements in chemistry has been the development or synthesis of whole new classes of materials. Early plastics such as Parkesine, for example, developed before 1862, and celluloid had little commercial success until the 20th century. The early plastics had relied on the large molecules in cellulose, usually derived from wood pulp. However, in 1909 Leo H. Baekeland, a Belgian-born inventor in the United States, took out a patent for Bakelite, a hard, chemically resistant plastic that he had developed. As a nonconductor of electricity it was useful for all sorts of electrical appliances.

(3) The commercial success of Bakelite sparked great interest and investment in the plastics industry, in the study of coal-tar products and other hydrocarbon compounds, and in the theoretical understanding of complex molecules. This activity led to new dyes and detergents, but it also led to the successful manipulation of molecules to produce materials with particular qualities such as hardness or flexibility. Techniques were developed, often requiring catalysts and elaborate equipment, to make these polymers – that is, complex molecules produced by the building up of simpler structures. Among the more important results from the advance of chemistry in this direction has been the development of the industries for producing synthetic fibers for use in textiles and other applications, and for producing synthetic rubber.

(4) An even more dramatic result of the growth in chemical knowledge has been the expansion of the modern pharmaceutical industry. Notable early achievements include the development of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) in 1899, Salvarsan (an antisyphilis drug) in 1910, and Prontosil (an effective antistreptococcal drug) in 1932, as well as the discovery of penicillin in 1928.

(Britannica Student Encyclopedia Library)

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