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Kinetic Theory Of Matter

a. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable word

Molecules are the building blocks of _____ and _____ and many ____ as well. Gases, liquids, and solids make up the three states of ______. According to some scientists, plasmas, which are gases, composed of charged particles, make up a _____ _____ of _____. The same substance may be a solid, or a liquid, or a gas, depending upon the ___________. Water, for example, is most familiar to us in the liquid form. When it freezes, it becomes a solid – ____. When it boils, it becomes a gas – _____. What is true of water is true of other _________.

b. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable article

Strictly speaking, then, it is not accurate to call this or that substance ___ solid, or ___ liquid, or ___ gas, because most substances can be found in one or another of ___ states of matter under certain conditions of temperature or pressure. However, most bodies are solids, or liquids, or gases under ordinary conditions, and we refer to them as such. Thus we call iron ___ solid, even though it will melt and become ___ liquid at ___ temperature of 1,535° Celsius. We call carbon dioxide ___ gas even though it can be transformed into ___ solid that we call dry ice.

Molecules are certainly quite unusual building blocks, for they are constantly in motion, except at ___ theoretical temperature that we call absolute zero, ___ equivalent of -273.16° Celsius. ___ laws, governing this motion, have been set in what is known as ___ kinetic theory, or kinetic-molecular theory, of matter. It offers ___ perfectly natural explanation for many phenomena that were once thought to be very mysterious.

c. Fill in the gaps with a suitable preposition

According __ the kinetic theory, the molecules __ a gas __ a container are continually bumping _____ one another and also _____ the walls __ the container. Imagine a half-dozen billiard balls, kept constantly __ motion __ a billiard table. Each ball will move __ a straight line ____ it hits another ball or the side __ the table. ____ such a collision, it will bounce off __ an angle, moving __ a new direction and often ___ a different speed. The gas molecules follow much the same sort __ chaotic pattern, except that they move __ the three dimensions __ space and are not confined to the two dimensions of a table surface. We can see the effect __ this constant movement of molecules __ examining smoke ______ a microscope. We first admit the smoke _____ a closed container which has transparent windows. If we now illuminate the container ____ a bright light and examine it ____ the microscope, we shall be able to see the individual particles __ smoke dancing ____ continually __ an erratic way. The smoke particles move about __ this manner because they are being constantly bombarded __ the molecules __ the gases that make up the air __ the container. The perpetual dance __ particles is called the Brownian movement, or motion, ____ Dr. Robert Brown (1773–1858), a 19th-century Scots scientist, who first showed how general this kind of movement is.

d. Fill in the gaps with the following words

motion heat energy degree force quantity substance

The rate at which the molecules move depends upon the ______ of hotness of a given __________. As a matter of fact, _____ is simply the kinetic _______, or energy of _____, of the molecules of a substance. If there is little heat in a given ________ of gas, the motion of the molecules is slow. If there is more heat, the molecules will dart to and fro more rapidly. They will strike the walls of the container more often and with greater ______.

Ex. 22. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian.

1. If hydrogen were being used as the base of atomic weights this change would have required changes of almost all atomic weights by 0.03 %, instead of only that of hydrogen, because most atomic weights had been determined by comparison with oxygen. 2. If there were no order in the way in which atoms of different elements combine to form the molecules and crystals of compounds it would be necessary for us to memorize one by one the formulas of thousands of substances. 3. The crystals and the liquid are in equilibrium at the freezing point (melting point), and then they have exactly the same vapor pressure. If the two phases had different vapor pressures, the phase with the larger vapor pressure would continue to evaporate, and the vapor would continue to condense as the other phase, until the first phase had disappeared. 4. It is found by experiment and required by the kinetic theory that each of the components of a dilute gas mixture exerts the same pressure as if it were present alone in the entire volume. 5. Bohr suggested that the orbit of the electron in the normal hydrogen atom should be circular. 6. If the molecular weight were known, the volume of a given weight of a gas could be calculated directly from the perfect gas equation. 7. It is clear that the ions of a crystal of sodium chloride placed in water could dissociate away from the crystal far more easily than if the crystal were in air, since the electrostatic force bringing an ion back to the surface of the crystal from the aqueous solution is only 1/80 as strong as from air.

Study the following grammar rule.

Present

У підрядних реченнях теперішнього та майбутнього часів після дієслова to wish використовуємо Past Indefiniteабо would + do

I wish I knew everything.

I wish I were a millionaire.

He wishes he would live in London.

Past

У підрядних реченнях минулого часу після to wishвикористовуємо Past Perfectабо would + have done

He wishes he had taken a taxi.

They wish they had been more accurate during the experiment.

She wished she would have written down the address.

Ex. 23. Open the brackets.

1. I wish I (can) give up smoking 2. She wishes she (to see) him at yesterday's party. 3. I wish I (to pass) my driving test last Monday. 4. I wish I (notto forget) my friend's birthday yesterday. 5. The boy is sad. He wishes he (not to break) the window.6. My aunt wishes she (to stay) at home last weekend. 7. He wishes he (to know) something about cars. 8. I wish it (to be) sunny. 9. I wish it (to be) sunnyduring our picnic last Saturday. 10. She wishes she (to live) in the Crimea. 11. My friend wishes he (not to do) that last night. 12. I wish I (to bring) my camera last summer. 13. I wish I (can) tell the future.14. Do you wish you (to be) in the Guinness Book of Records? 15. Some people wish they (can) appear on a TV game show and become famous. 16. She often wishes things (to be) different.

Ex. 24. Change the sentences using wish structure.

1. Unfortunately they won't return before Christmas. 2. The student was sorry he had not studiedthe material better and had shown such poor knowledge at the examination. 3. It's a pity that you did not send for us last night. 4. It's a pity you are not with us these days. 5. My friend regrets not having entered the university. 6. He was sorry not to have had enough time to finish his paper. 7. It'sa pity we shan't be able to reach home before tea-time. 8. I am sorry I made you upset by telling you this news. 9. What a pity you don't know enoughphysics.

Ex. 25. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. На жаль, вони про це ще нічого не знають. 2. На жаль, вони вже все про це знають. 3. Якщо б у нас зараз були канікули! 4. Ми пожалкували, що не дізналися про результати контрольної роботи відразу. 5. Шкода, що вас не цікавить цей предмет. 6. Шкода, що ви не звернули увагу на його попередження. 7. Він пожалкував, що кинув навчання в університеті. 8. На екзамені він пожалкував, що не відвідував лекції.

Ex. 26. Before reading the text guess the answers for the following questions.

  1. Air is composed of …

  1. Oxygen

  2. Oxygen and Nitrogen

  3. Oxygen, Nitrogen and some other gases

  1. Air at the sea level is slightly richer in …

  1. salts

  2. oxygen

  3. nitrogen

  1. Air can be separated into compounds by …

  1. fractional distillation

  2. heating

  3. steam distillation

  1. The formula of air is …

  1. N4O

  2. too complicated to write here

  3. impossible

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